Anthony Mills

Chief Executive Officer

PhD Soil Science, MPhil Environment and Development, MSc Environmental Geochemistry, BSc Zoology

Anthony is the founder and CEO of C4 EcoSolutions – a company of 20 climate change consultants – that develops innovative, evidence-based solutions for adapting to climate change and conserving biodiversity. C4 has been in operation since 2006 and has worked in 77 countries across Asia, Central America, Africa and the Caribbean. The company’s clients include inter alia the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), private firms such as CarbonPlus Capital, and national governments. Anthony is also an Extraordinary Professor in the Department of Soil Science, Stellenbosch University, where he undertakes primary research on soil chemistry and ecology. Anthony’s academic qualifications include a BSc Zoology (University of Cape Town), MSc Environmental Geochemistry (University of Cape Town), an MPhil in Environment and Development (University of Cambridge) and a PhD in Soil Science (Stellenbosch University). Anthony regularly publishes in the peer-reviewed academic literature on a wide range of topics, including soil chemistry, ecology, ecosystem restoration, climate change adaptation and carbon sequestration.

Robert Raw

Chief Operating Officer

PhD Zoology, MSc Zoology (Marine Biology), BSc (Honours) Zoology, BSc Zoology, Ecology and Marine Biology

Dr Robert Raw joined the C4 EcoSolutions team in 2017 as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. Coming from an academic background, Robert has developed a keen interest in the use of innovative, multidisciplinary approaches to sustainable development, with a current focus on using Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) – supported by comprehensive social and economic data – to build the resilience of vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change. His work at C4 has included coordinating the development of several GCF and GEF adaptation projects, as well as serving as a technical advisor to the UN Environment EbA South project in Nepal. Prior to joining C4, Robert focused on academic research, with experience in habitat fragmentation, population demographics and behavioural ecology. His PhD research investigated the role of echolocation in the communication of horseshoe bats and how this could have influenced the evolution of acoustic signals. During his studies, Robert also worked part-time as an environmental consultant, conducting EIAs for the renewable energy sector in South Africa.

Nicholas Tye

Senior Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Ecology, Environment and Conservation, BSc (Honours)

Nick has wide-ranging experience in designing and implementing ecosystem-based adaptation projects in developing countries. His work at C4 EcoSolutions has included: leading and coordinating the development of GEF adaptation projects for a range of clients; developing several GEF PIFs; undertaking baseline assessments for an Adaptation Fund project in Cambodia; and leading the development of a GEF-SCCF project in Albania for UNEP, GEF-LDCF Global Support Programmes for UNEP and UNDP, and a GEF-LDCF project in Angola. Nick is also the Chief Technical Advisor for an Adaptation Fund project in Cambodia for UNEP. Before joining C4, Nick worked as a Biodiversity Specialist – focusing on birds – for the North West Provincial Government in South Africa. This work linked to his MSc research which focused on biodiversity in riverine ecosystems in the Kruger National Park.

Luke Moore

Senior Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

BSocSci (Honours) Geography & Environmental Management, BA Geography & Environmental Science

Luke joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as a senior Climate Change and Environmental Consultant, with expertise and experience in coastal and estuarine management, climate change and applied GIS. Prior to joining C4, he gained experience in the private and NGO sectors, delivering project and research outcomes to national and subnational spheres of government, private clients and international donors in over ten countries in the global south and further afield. Luke enjoys working with multi-disciplinary teams and integrating socioeconomic and environmental data into policy and decision support tools for a variety of end-users and decision-makers. From a research perspective, Luke is interested in the political ecology of environmental governance, particularly integrated coastal management in rapidly urbanising cities in southern Africa.

Jessica Allen

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

PhD Zoology, BSc (Honours) Zoology, BSc Zoology Botany, Geography and Geology

Dr Jessica Allen works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. Prior to working at C4, she held a Post-Doctoral position at Stellenbosch University. Her PhD thesis focussed on latitudinal patterns of variation in adaptive capacity and phenotypic plasticity in arthropods. Jessica is particularly interested in climate change adaptation, invasive species and environmental restoration. Her skills include data handling and analysis in R, with a focus on mixed modelling, Bayesian inference and mapping, as well as data visualisation and science communication. Her work at C4 has included the Natural Soil Infrastructure and Ecosystem Services Assessment research project (funded by the South African government’s Department of Environmental Affairs), as well as large-scale adaptation projects in South Africa and abroad.

Pieter Botha

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Botany, BSC (Honours) Botany, BSc Biodiversity & Ecology

Pieter works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. He holds a Master’s degree in Botany from Stellenbosch University, where he investigated the loss of bird pollinators in the Cape Floristic Region. Prior to working for C4, Pieter worked in Colombia and in Panama, where he assisted on projects at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Pieter is particularly interested in pollination ecology, invasion biology, conservation and sustainable development.

Kevin Emslie

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Zoology, BSc (Honours) Wildlife Management, BSc Veterinary Biology

Kevin works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. His previous experience includes working as an endangered species monitor in northern KwaZulu-Natal, where he was involved in the daily monitoring and management of species such as African wild dog, cheetah and black rhinoceros. Prior to working at C4 Kevin worked as a research technician for the Sasol Serval Project in Secunda, Mpumalanga, where he was involved in studying the population ecology of the elusive feline. His additional experience includes involvement in studies focusing on populations of large carnivores – including leopards and spotted hyaenas – and research on small carnivores and rodents in disturbed landscapes. Kevin is particularly interested in biodiversity conservation, the mitigation of human-wildlife conflict, sustainable development and the role of the biological control of rodent pests in strengthening food security.

Emma Jones-Phillipson

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Public Policy and Administration, BSocSc (Honours) Public Policy and Administration, BSocSc Politics, Economics and Public Policy and Administration

Emma joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. She holds an MSc in Public Policy and Administration from the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), where she investigated the gender empowering and limiting impacts of South Africa’s social protection instruments. Prior to joining C4, Emma had various policy and operational roles in the South African and British NGO sectors, working in human rights, youth employment, development and environmental affairs. Emma is particularly interested in environmental policy, urban socio-ecological systems, sustainable livelihoods, and the dynamics of climate change with gender-based vulnerability and resilience.

Chester Kaplan

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Social Anthropology, BA (Honours) Archaeology, BA Anthropology & Archaeology

Chester works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. He holds a MSc in Social Anthropology from the University of Amsterdam, where he investigated the barriers to cooperative development strategies and land restitution on a community scale in South Africa. Prior to joining C4 Chester worked as an archaeological researcher focussing on human adaptation to arid environments and the development of early human symbolism in Southern Africa. He also has experience working as a heritage consultant and as an archaeological collections curator. Through his work in the field of archaeology Chester has developed a strong interest in socio-ecological systems and human adaptation and his current focus is on the development of integrated resilience strategies for vulnerable and marginal populations.

Thabisisani Ndhlovu

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Conservation Ecology, MSc Tropical Resource Ecology, BSc Geography and Biology

Thabisisani works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. His work at C4 has included: undertaking baseline assessments for GEF-LDCF projects in The Gambia and Lesotho; developing a programme document for a large-scale ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA) in Turkey’s Mediterranean forests; and conducting research on the capacity of restored subtropical thicket to support wildlife and sequester carbon under the Department of Environmental Affairs’ Subtropical Thicket Restoration Project. Thabisisani holds a Master’s degree in Conservation Ecology from Stellenbosch University, where he investigated the impacts of a widespread alien invasive tree, Prosopis, on the ecosystem structure, function and agricultural productivity of Nama Karoo rangeland in South Africa.

Stephanie Miller

Project Manager

BCom (Hons) Business Management, BCom Marketing Management

Stephanie works at C4 as a Project Manager. In this role, she is responsible for managing the logistical and operational functions to ensure projects are delivered to clients on time and to the required quality standard. Prior to joining the C4 team, Stephanie worked for First National Bank for nine years. After completing a two-year graduate training programme, she joined FNB Online Banking as a Project and eventually Programme Manager. During her time with FNB, Stephanie worked on multiple complex projects simultaneously, with cross-segment and cross-system dependencies including implementing projects into the FirstRand Bank Subsidiaries. Stephanie managed a combination of software development projects, as well as Microsoft Web, Legal, Compliance, Fraud and Prevention projects. As a Programme Manager, she coordinated a team Of Project Managers to deliver within the agreed quality standards.

Alicia Raw

Project Manager

MSc Zoology, BSc (Honours) Botany, BSc Evolutionary Biology, Biodiversity and Zoology

Alicia Raw joined the C4 EcoSolutions team in 2018 and works as a Project Manager, assisting in the development and management of climate change adaptation projects. Prior to joining C4, she focused on environmental impact assessments for the renewable energy sector. Her academic background is in the fields of Evolutionary Biology, Biodiversity and Zoology, with an MSc from the University of Cape Town. Through her academic and professional careers, Alicia developed an appreciation for the importance of natural ecosystems and the role they can play in sustainable development. In particular, she has a keen interest in the potential for using ecosystem restoration to help vulnerable communities adapt to climate change.

Sarah Catto


MSc Conservation Biology, BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences, BSc Applied Biology, Ecology and Evolution

Sarah works at C4 EcoSolutions as an Analyst, having completed a one-year internship with the company. Prior to joining C4, she obtained an MSc degree in Conservation Biology from the University of Cape Town. Her dissertation investigated how fluctuating human activity and associated anthropogenic food availability affect behaviour and parental care of a population of birds — Red-winged starlings (Onychognathus morio) — on campus. Since starting at C4, Sarah has worked on the development of several Green Climate Fund (GCF) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects in countries across Africa and Asia. She has also been closely involved in the development of National Adaptation Planning (NAP) processes for several developing countries. Sarah’s interests lie specifically in conservation, sustainable development, community ecology and evolutionary biology.

Ruan de Wet


BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences, BSc Applied Biology, Geology

Ruan works at C4 EcoSolutions as an analyst. He is also currently an MSc candidate at UCT, investigating the applications of stable water isotopes for water management in a changing climate. Prior to joining C4 EcoSolutions Ruan worked as a research assistant for an environmental consulting firm with a focus on grassland and savanna veld management. He is particularly interested in climate change adaptation, sustainable development and savanna ecology.

Sean Foden


BA Geography and Environmental Sciences

Sean works at C4 as an Analyst, having joined the company in 2017. His work has focused on the development of climate change adaptation projects for the Green Climate Fund (GCF), Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Adaptation Fund (AF). These projects are designed to increase the resilience of the most vulnerable communities to extreme climatic events, while providing sustainable social and economic benefits. To date, Sean has worked on nine GCF-funded projects and three National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). He also has experience in developing Project Documents for GEF and AF. Through his work at C4, Sean has developed an in-depth understanding of GCF requirements, including climate rationale, GCF investment criteria and environmental and social safeguards. His interests lie particularly in sustainable human development and climate change adaptation.

Hannah Simon


BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences, BSc Environmental and Geographical Sciences and Applied Biology

Hannah works at C4 as an analyst. Since joining C4, she has worked on developing Green Climate Fund (GCF) and Adaptation Fund (AF) projects for several countries, including South Africa, Swaziland, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Her Honours thesis investigated the utility of drone technology in assessing drought stress in plants. Through such work, Hannah became skilled in drone operation, data handling and analysis using R as well as in science and popular science communication. She is particularly interested in urban ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA), plant ecophysiology, remote sensing and sustainable human development. Hannah is due to start her MSc (Environmental Change and Management) at the University of Oxford in September.

Hannes Kok


BA Social Dynamics, BSc (Honours) Geography

Hannes joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as an intern. He holds a BA in Social Dynamics, a BSc (Honours) in Geography and is currently completing his MSc in Environmental Management through the University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), where he is investigating the relationship between climate change and development. Hannes is particularly interested in the social and ecological impacts of development and the geopolitical dimensions of environmental change.

Lucy Lavirotte


MSc Political Science

Lucy joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2018 to focus on the development of climate change adaptation projects in French-speaking countries. Lucy holds an MSc degree in Political Science from Université de Montréal and is currently completing an MPhil in Climate Change and Development through the African Climate & Development Institute (ACDI) at the University of Cape Town. Her interests lie particularly in community-based adaptation, food security and multi-scalar governance. In line with these interests, Lucy’s research is focused on the barriers and enablers for adaptation to droughts among women farmers in informal settlements. Prior to joining C4, Lucy worked as an analyst at the Third World Studies Center in Manila, focusing on the environmental impacts of the palm oil industry on vulnerable communities. Following this, she joined the sustainable development association Comité 21, where she was involved in the preparation for COP22.

Kelly Vlieghe


PhD Zoology, BSc (Honours) Zoology, BSc Zoology, Environmental and Geographical Sciences

Kelly joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as an intern. She holds a PhD in Zoology from the University of Cape Town where she investigated the potential role of termites in the formation of enigmatic landscape features known as ‘fairy circles’ in the Namib Desert. Prior to joining C4 EcoSolutions she worked as a research assistant at Stellenbosch University, looking at the use of cover crops and adjacent natural habitats to attract beneficial insects to apple orchards in the Grabouw Valley. Kelly is particularly interested in ecological entomology, biodiversity conservation and finding innovative ways to improve the resilience of ecosystems to climate change.

Nicola Rule


MSc Environmental Change and Management, BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences, BSc Applied Biology and Genetics

Nicola joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as an intern. She holds an MSc in Environmental Change and Management from the University of Oxford, where she investigated the impact of immigration on urban food systems and sustainable diets. Prior to undertaking her MSc, she worked in the field of environmental management in the local government sector in South Africa. Nicola is particularly interested in adaptive environmental governance and urban climate change adaptation.

Debbie Buckley

Administrative Office Manager

Debbie joined C4 in 2014 and currently serves as the Administrative Office Manager. She is versatile, reliable and efficient, with more than 10 years’ experience supporting managers and executives in fast-paced environments. Through her role at C4, Debbie has developed a diverse skillset, including client relations, human resources, recruiting, project management and administrative support

Shae Barna

Administrative Assistant

Diploma in Travel and Tourism Management

Shae works at C4 as an administrative assistant, providing support for the day-to-day operations of the C4 office. Prior to joining the C4 team, Shae worked at Portfolio Media, an accommodation booking portal, where she was responsible for multiple aspects of company operations, including accounts, reservations, desktop publishing and web design