PhD Soil Science; MPhil Environment and Development; MSc Environmental Geochemistry; BSc Zoology
Anthony is the founder and CEO of C4 EcoSolutions – a company of 20 climate change consultants – that develops innovative, evidence-based solutions for adapting to climate change and conserving biodiversity. C4 has been in operation since 2006 and has worked in 77 countries across Asia, Central America, Africa and the Caribbean. The company’s clients include inter alia the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), private firms such as CarbonPlus Capital, and national governments. Anthony is also an Extraordinary Professor in the Department of Soil Science, Stellenbosch University, where he undertakes primary research on soil chemistry and ecology. Anthony’s academic qualifications include a BSc Zoology (University of Cape Town), MSc Environmental Geochemistry (University of Cape Town), an MPhil in Environment and Development (University of Cambridge) and a PhD in Soil Science (Stellenbosch University). Anthony regularly publishes in the peer-reviewed academic literature on a wide range of topics, including soil chemistry, ecology, ecosystem restoration, climate change adaptation and carbon sequestration.
PhD Zoology; MSc Zoology (Marine Biology); BSc (Honours) Zoology; BSc Zoology, Ecology and Marine Biology
Dr Robert Raw joined the C4 EcoSolutions team in 2017 as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. Coming from an academic background, Robert has developed a keen interest in the use of innovative, multidisciplinary approaches to sustainable development, with a current focus on using Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) – supported by comprehensive social and economic data – to build the resilience of vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change. His work at C4 has included coordinating the development of several GCF and GEF adaptation projects, as well as serving as a technical advisor to the UN Environment EbA South project in Nepal. Prior to joining C4, Robert focused on academic research, with experience in habitat fragmentation, population demographics and behavioural ecology. His PhD research investigated the role of echolocation in the communication of horseshoe bats and how this could have influenced the evolution of acoustic signals. During his studies, Robert also worked part-time as an environmental consultant, conducting EIAs for the renewable energy sector in South Africa.
MSc Ecology, Environment and Conservation; BSc (Honours) Ecology, Environment and Conservation; BSc Zoology and Ecology, Environment and Conservation
Nick joined the C4 EcoSolutions team in 2012 as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. Through his work with C4, Nick has developed wide-ranging experience in designing, monitoring and implementing climate change adaptation projects, with a focus on ecosystem-based adaptation, in developing countries. His work at C4 EcoSolutions has included: leading the development of more than 10 adaptation project concept notes (including GEF PIFs) for GEF, Adaptation Fund and GCF; leading and coordinating the development of more than 10 full adaptation project proposals for GEF, Adaptation Fund and GCF; undertaking baseline assessments and mid-term reviews of adaptation and environmental projects; and developing the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPA) for South Sudan. Nick is also currently the Chief Technical Advisor for an Adaptation Fund project in Cambodia, a GEF-SCCF project in Albania and a GEF-LDCF project in Angola. Before joining C4, Nick worked as a Biodiversity Specialist – focusing on birds – for the North West Provincial Government in South Africa. This work linked to his MSc research which focused on biodiversity in riverine ecosystems in the Kruger National Park.
MA Geography & Environmental Studies; BSocSci (Honours) Geography & Environmental Management; BA Geography & Environmental Science
Luke joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as a senior Climate Change and Environmental Consultant, with expertise and experience in coastal and estuarine management, climate change and applied GIS. Prior to joining C4, he gained experience in the private and NGO sectors, delivering project and research outcomes to national and subnational spheres of government, private clients and international donors in over ten countries in the global south and further afield. Luke enjoys working with multi-disciplinary teams and integrating socioeconomic and environmental data into policy and decision support tools for a variety of end-users and decision-makers. From a research perspective, Luke is interested in the political ecology of environmental governance, particularly integrated coastal management in rapidly urbanising cities in southern Africa.
MSc Atmospheric Science; BSc (Honours) Atmospheric Science; BSc Environmental and Geographical Science and Ocean and Atmospheric Science
David joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as a Senior Climate Change and Environmental Consultant, specialising in technical climate change and spatial analyses. Before joining C4, David worked in the disaster risk field, focusing on assessing community and regional vulnerabilities to both existing and projected future hazards. The analysis techniques used in this field focus on delivering robust outputs while addressing the gap between complex data science and actionable knowledge. David’s master’s thesis sought to deliver an atmospheric gravity wave climatology for Southern African, highlighting areas of generation and seasons of significant propagation. David’s honours studies focused on observed metrological implications of rainfall changes in the Western Cape leading to potential future drought conditions as was evidenced in the 2014-2017 drought event.
MSc Zoology; BSc (Honours) Wildlife Management; BSc Veterinary Biology
Kevin works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. His previous experience includes working as an endangered species monitor in northern KwaZulu-Natal, where he was involved in the daily monitoring and management of species such as African wild dog, cheetah and black rhinoceros. Prior to working at C4 Kevin worked as a research technician for the Sasol Serval Project in Secunda, Mpumalanga, where he was involved in studying the population ecology of the elusive feline. His additional experience includes involvement in studies focusing on populations of large carnivores – including leopards and spotted hyaenas – and research on small carnivores and rodents in disturbed landscapes. Kevin is particularly interested in biodiversity conservation, the mitigation of human-wildlife conflict, sustainable development and the role of the biological control of rodent pests in strengthening food security.
PhD Zoology; BSc (Honours) Zoology; BSc Zoology Botany, Geography and Geology
Dr Jessica Allen works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. Prior to working at C4, she held a Post-Doctoral position at Stellenbosch University. Her PhD thesis focussed on latitudinal patterns of variation in adaptive capacity and phenotypic plasticity in arthropods. Jessica is particularly interested in climate change adaptation, invasive species and environmental restoration. Her skills include data handling and analysis in R, with a focus on mixed modelling, Bayesian inference and mapping, as well as data visualisation and science communication. Her work at C4 has included the Natural Soil Infrastructure and Ecosystem Services Assessment research project (funded by the South African government’s Department of Environmental Affairs), as well as large-scale adaptation projects in South Africa and abroad.
MSc Conservation Biology; BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences; BSc Applied Biology, Ecology and Evolution
Sarah works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant, having completed a one-year internship with the company. Prior to joining C4, she obtained an MSc degree in Conservation Biology from the University of Cape Town. Her dissertation investigated how fluctuating human activity and associated anthropogenic food availability affect behaviour and parental care of a population of birds — Red-winged starlings (Onychognathus morio) — on campus. Since starting at C4, Sarah has worked on the development of several Green Climate Fund (GCF) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects in countries across Africa and Asia. She has also been closely involved in the development of National Adaptation Planning (NAP) processes for several developing countries. Sarah’s interests lie specifically in conservation, sustainable development, community ecology and evolutionary biology.
Ruan de Wet
MSc Geology; BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences; BSc Applied Biology and Geology
Ruan works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant, having joined the company in 2017. He holds an MSc from the University of Cape Town, where he investigated the applications of stable water isotopes for water management in a changing climate. Prior to joining C4 EcoSolutions, Ruan worked as a research assistant for an environmental consulting firm with a focus on grassland and savanna veld management. He is particularly interested in climate change adaptation and mitigation, sustainable development and rangeland ecology.
BA Geography and Environmental Sciences
Sean works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant, having joined the company in 2017. Through his work on developing climate change adaptation and mitigation projects for the Green Climate Fund (GCF), Global Environment Facility and Adaptation Fund, Sean has developed a keen interest in urban climate resilience and disaster risk reduction within small island developing states across the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Pacific regions. This experience includes the design of innovative projects to climate-proof key economic sectors through the development of innovative financial risk reduction products, increasing low-emissions development and strengthening disaster risk reduction capacities in the beneficiary countries. Sean has also gained an in-depth understanding of the intricacies of GCF, including the crafting of a climate rationale, developing a robust theory of change, aligning project interventions with the GCF investment criteria, and compiling full submission packages that meet the requirements of the fund.
MSc Public Policy and Administration; BSocSc (Honours) Public Policy and Administration; BSocSc Politics, Economics and Public Policy and Administration
Emma works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant, having joined the company in January 2019. She holds an MSc in Public Policy and Administration from the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), where she investigated the gender empowering and limiting impacts of South Africa’s social protection instruments. Prior to joining C4, Emma had various policy and operational roles in the South African and British NGO sectors, working in human rights, youth employment, development and environmental affairs. Whilst at C4, Emma has contributed to several GCF, GEF and BioCarbon Fund projects, including leading the development of an innovative refugee-oriented adaptation funding proposal and co-leading a private sector engagement strategy to combat deforestation. As the in-house gender and policy specialist, Emma has also contributed to the policy, governance and gender components of various company projects. Emma is particularly interested in environmental policy, sustainable livelihoods, climate justice and the dynamics of climate change with gender-based vulnerability and resilience.
MSc Political Science; MPhil Climate Change and Development; BA Political Science
Lucy joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2018 to focus on the development of climate change adaptation projects in French-speaking countries. Lucy holds an MSc degree in Political Science from Université de Montréal and an MPhil in Climate Change and Development through the African Climate & Development Institute (ACDI) at the University of Cape Town. Her interests lie particularly in community-based adaptation, food security and multi-scalar governance. In line with these interests, Lucy’s research focused on the barriers and enablers for adaptation to droughts among women farmers in informal settlements. Prior to joining C4, Lucy worked as an analyst at the Third World Studies Center in Manila, focusing on the environmental impacts of the palm oil industry on vulnerable communities. Following this, she joined the sustainable development association Comité 21, where she was involved in the preparation for COP22.
MSc Conservation Ecology; MSc Tropical Resource Ecology; BSc Geography and Biology
Thabisisani works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. His work at C4 has included: undertaking baseline assessments for GEF-LDCF projects in The Gambia and Lesotho; developing a programme document for a large-scale ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA) in Turkey’s Mediterranean forests; and conducting research on the capacity of restored subtropical thicket to support wildlife and sequester carbon under the Department of Environmental Affairs’ Subtropical Thicket Restoration Project. Thabisisani holds a Master’s degree in Conservation Ecology from Stellenbosch University, where he investigated the impacts of a widespread alien invasive tree, Prosopis, on the ecosystem structure, function and agricultural productivity of Nama Karoo rangeland in South Africa.
MEcon Environmental and Natural Resource Economics; BSc Honours Geography and Economics; BSc Geography and Economics
James works at C4 EcoSolutions as an Economics and Climate Change Consultant. He holds a MEcon in environmental and natural resource economics from Rhodes University and has five years’ experience conducting applied research in the field of environmental and resource economics. Outputs have included contributions to strategic projects surrounding climate change adaptation and mitigation as well as biodiversity finance and offsets guidance. He has also formed part of various decision-making processes at local, regional and national scales, including environmental impact assessments, strategic environmental assessments and municipal-level project appraisals. James is well versed in quantitative approaches to natural resource economics, including financial modelling, statistical analysis, economic impact assessment, cost-benefit analysis and ecosystem services valuation. Previous roles include one year of employment in the financial sector and three years managing humanitarian aid and disaster relief programmes in South Sudan, Greece, Nepal, Dominica and Mozambique.
MSc Environmental Change and Management; BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences; BSc Applied Biology and Genetics
Nicola works at C4 EcoSolutions as an Analyst, having completed an internship with the company. She holds an MSc in Environmental Change and Management from the University of Oxford, where she investigated the impact of immigration on urban food systems and sustainable diets. Prior to undertaking her MSc, she worked in the field of environmental management in the local government sector in South Africa, with a focus on protected area governance and mainstreaming sustainability across government departments. Nicola is particularly interested in adaptive environmental governance and urban climate change adaptation.
PhD Media Studies; MSc Media Studies; BHons Journalism; BA Languages and Journalism
Dr Willemien Calitz joined C4 in 2020 as the Editor and Communication Specialist. Her background includes a variety of strategic communication and media experience, including strategic communication for non-governmental organisations and research institutes, journalism and media lecturing. Willemien obtained her PhD in Media Studies in 2020 at the University of Cape Town (UCT), focusing on China’s sustainable development and human rights reputation. Her MSc in Media Studies was obtained in 2014 at the University of Oregon (USA) following a BPhil Honours at Stellenbosch University and BA Languages and Journalism degree at the University of Pretoria. Willemien’s interests lie in communicating the interconnected and layered issues surrounding climate change in a way that is factual and scientifically correct, but also understandable to the layperson. Her recent years of experience as researcher and lecturer enables her to focus on communication that is rooted in science, but accessible to the broader community. She also contributes her writing and editing skills, as well as writing training skills to C4.
BSc (Honours) Geography; BA Social Dynamics
Hannes works at C4 EcoSolutions as an Analyst, having completed an internship with the company. He holds a BA in Social Dynamics, a BSc (Honours) in Geography and is currently completing an MSc in Environmental Management through the University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), where he is investigating the relationship between climate change and development. Hannes is particularly interested in the social and ecological impacts of development and the geopolitical dimensions of environmental change.
MSc Geology; BSc (Honours) Geology; BSc Environmental & Geographical Science and Geology
James joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as an intern. He holds an MSc in Geology from the University of Cape Town, where he investigated the evolution of a volcano in the Chilean Andes. James is particularly interested in how ecosystem-based adaptation can be used to improve the resilience of vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change and the potential to link his geological background into climate change adaptation.
BSc (Honours) in Biology
Patrick joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as an intern. He graduated from the University of Manchester in 2017 with a BSc (Honours) in Biology, specialising in behavioural and evolutionary ecology. Shortly after, Patrick participated in a conservation management internship at Somkhanda Game Reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, investigating the effectiveness of hair snare surveys in monitoring wild dog populations. Patrick is particularly interested in biodiversity conservation and the potential for ecosystem restoration to mitigate the impacts of climate change.
PhD Zoology; BSc (Honours) Zoology; BSc Zoology, Environmental and Geographical Sciences
Kelly works at C4 EcoSolutions as an analyst, having joined the company in 2019. She holds a PhD in Zoology from the University of Cape Town where she investigated the potential role of termites in the formation of enigmatic landscape features known as ‘fairy circles’ in the Namib Desert. Prior to joining C4 she worked as a research assistant at Stellenbosch University, looking at the use of cover crops and adjacent natural habitats to attract beneficial insects to apple orchards in the Grabouw Valley. Kelly is particularly interested in ecological entomology, biodiversity conservation and finding innovative ways to improve the resilience of ecosystems to climate change.
MSc Zoology; BSc (Honours) Botany; BSc Evolutionary Biology, Biodiversity and Zoology
Alicia Raw joined the C4 EcoSolutions team in 2018 and works as a Programme Manager, assisting in the development and management of climate change adaptation projects. Prior to joining C4, she focused on environmental impact assessments for the renewable energy sector. Her academic background is in the fields of Evolutionary Biology, Biodiversity, Botany and Zoology, with an MSc from the University of Cape Town. Through her academic and professional careers, Alicia developed an appreciation for the importance of natural ecosystems and the role they can play in sustainable development. In particular, she has a keen interest in the potential for using ecosystem restoration to help vulnerable communities adapt to climate change.
MSc, Ecology; BSc (Honours) Ecology, Environment and Conservation Sciences; BSc, Biological Sciences
Dylan joined C4 in 2020 as an Intern. He holds an MSc in Ecology from the University of the Witwatersrand where he investigated the consequences of grazing resistance adaptations on the population genetics of Rhodohypoxis baurii var. platypetala in the Drakensberg. Prior to joining C4, he worked as an intern at the University of Pretoria in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences where he gained experience in project management and communications, as well as working as a research and field assistant. His fields of interest include ecosystem functioning, developing sustainable interactions between environments and people, biodiversity conservation, and effective communication of scientific work to the public.
PGDip (Sustainable Development), BA Environmental Management
Paul joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds a Postgraduate Diploma in Sustainable Development from the University of Stellenbosch, with a specialisation in food systems sustainability. He has worked in the social development and ecotourism sectors, where he explored how innovation in food systems and land management can create new livelihoods for a sustainable future. Paul is particularly interested in the role of regenerative agriculture in carbon capture and aiding the adaption of socio-ecological systems to climate change.
MPhil in Environment, Society and Sustainability; PGCE; BFA Fine Art and Psychology
Erin joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds an MPhil in Environment, Society and Sustainability from the University of Cape Town. Prior to this, her educational background was in art, psychology and education. Through her studies, Erin pursued her interests in human-animal-earth relations and became fascinated by the complex challenges associated with managing and communicating climate change and environmental adaptation. Her master's thesis drew on multiple disciplines to analyse the framing of the City of Cape Town's communications to the public during the recent Cape Town water crisis. Erin's interests include resource and crisis management, environmental education and communication, land restoration and conservation, and safeguarding animals and people. She enjoys working on projects which take interdisciplinary approaches to problem-solving, especially those which value the interconnectedness of all life forms.
PGDip (Sustainable Development), BA Development and Environment
Ella joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds a Bachelor's degree in Development and Environment from Stellenbosch University, and a Postgraduate Diploma in Sustainable Development from the Sustainability Institute focusing on renewable energy and sustainable cities. Her interests include the complexities of navigating a just transition to a zero-carbon future, in particular the fields of renewable energy, sustainable food systems and urban governance.
BA in Environmental Science and English
Makhotso joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds a BA in Environmental Sciences and English from the University of Botswana in 2017. Prior to joining C4, Makhotso worked as a volunteer intern for the Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa (GDSA) Secretariat and a consultant for Conservation International (CI). Makhotso has developed a particular interest in the dynamics of climate change on community development and climate change adaptation and mitigation.
MSc Environmental Science; BSc (Honours) Environmental Science; BSc Environmental Science and Economics
Andrew joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds an MSc in Environmental Science from Rhodes University where he researched the extent and nature of the green collar employment sector in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Prior to joining C4, he gained experience in the green building sector working at an NPO, dealing with the sustainability and environmental certification of new and existing buildings, as well as the analysis of waste, energy and water usage data. During this time, Andrew was a part of the 2019 WWF Graduate Internship Programme working as a member of a larger team of diverse graduates. Andrew has particular interests in environmental economics, ecosystem services, and socio-ecological systems, as well as an entrenched passion for contributing positively to human and environmental well-being locally and internationally.
BSc (Honours) in Biological Sciences, BSc in Applied Biology and Environmental & Geographical Sciences
Tim joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He graduated from the University of Cape Town in 2019 with a BSc (Honours) degree in Biological Sciences. His Honours thesis involved running geospatial models to determine which environmental variables determine plant species richness patterns in the Greater Cape Floristic Region, with a focus on climatic and soil properties. Earlier in 2019, Tim participated in a three-month course with the Organization for Tropical Studies based mainly in Skukuza, Kruger National Park, where he designed and worked on various field studies involving biodiversity surveys, soil and vegetation dynamics and ecology of rhino middens. Tim is particularly interested in the relationship between climate change, ecology and people.
MSc in Climate Change, Development and Policy; BEng in Chemical Engineering
Dylan joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds a BEng in Chemical Engineering from the University of Edinburgh and an MSc in Climate Change, Development and Policy from the University of Sussex, where he studied the challenges and opportunities of moving towards a low-carbon, climate-resilient world. His dissertation investigated the role of cities in driving socio-ecological transitions, with a focus on the actions of transnational municipal networks. Dylan is particularly interested in energy policy, urban climate governance and nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation and mitigation.
MSc in Environmental Science; BSc (Honours) Forest Resources and Wildlife Management
Current joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds an MSc in Environmental Science from Rhodes University, where he investigated the link between rural livelihoods and ecosystem change in two dry-land sites of Southern Africa over a period of 30 years. The research fieldwork involved extensive travelling and stakeholder engagement, offering him with practical experience in navigating rural communities of both Zimbabwe and South Africa. Current is particularly interested in how the systems thinking approach can be applied to improve decision-making in natural resource management and the adaptive capacity of rural livelihood systems to the impacts of climate change.
MA in Environment, Development and Policy; BA in Environmental Science and Anthropology
Rosie joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds an MA in Environment, Development and Policy from the University of Sussex; a BA in Environmental Science and Anthropology from Rhodes University; and a Higher Certificate in Film, Television and Entertainment, cum laude, from AFDA Cape Town. During her master's thesis, she drew on a political ecology framework to investigate current media narratives about an all-female anti-poaching unit in South Africa's Kruger National Park. Rosie is particularly interested in climate change adaptation, political ecology, peace and conflict studies, and gender and development studies.
MSc Biological Sciences; BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences; BSc Applied Biology, Ecology & Evolution, and Marine Biology
Kervin joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds an MSc from the University of Cape Town, where he investigated the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated relative humidity levels on the nutritional value of maize and wheat plants. Kervin is particularly interested in climate change adaptation and mitigation, plant eco-physiology and ecological statistics. He also is passionate about geopolitics and international relations, particularly in French-speaking African countries.
MSc in Conservation Medicine; BS in Environmental Science
Miren joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds an MSc in Conservation Medicine from Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, where she investigated quantitative methods to improve the rehabilitation success of endangered African penguin chicks for release back into the wild. Miren is particularly interested in biodiversity conservation and studying the links between humans, animals and the environment to improve resiliency against the impacts of climate change.
Debbie joined C4 in 2014 and currently serves as the Administrative Office Manager. She is versatile, reliable and efficient, with more than 10 years’ experience supporting managers and executives in fast-paced environments. Through her role at C4, Debbie has developed a diverse skillset, including client relations, human resources, recruiting, project management and administrative support