Anthony Mills

Chief Executive Officer

PhD Soil Science; MPhil Environment and Development; MSc Environmental Geochemistry; BSc Zoology

Anthony is the founder and CEO of C4 EcoSolutions. He is acutely aware that major investments in ecosystem restoration and regenerative agriculture at the scale of hundreds of millions of hectares are urgently needed over the next ten years in order to effectively address the biodiversity and climate change crises facing the planet. The focus of his career has consequently been to catalyse such investments within the public and private sector. For example, in addition to his extensive work on Green Climate Fund and Global Environment Facility projects, he recently designed the strategy on the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (www.decadeonrestoration.org), and is working with a wide range of private sector investors to realise the vision of restoring one million hectares of degraded thicket landscapes in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/6/11/4328). Anthony is also an Extraordinary Professor in the Department of Soil Science, Stellenbosch University, where he undertakes primary research on soil chemistry and ecology. Anthony’s academic qualifications include a BSc Zoology (University of Cape Town), MSc Environmental Geochemistry (University of Cape Town), an MPhil in Environment and Development (University of Cambridge) and a PhD in Soil Science (Stellenbosch University). Anthony regularly publishes in the peer-reviewed academic literature on a wide range of topics, including soil chemistry, ecology, ecosystem restoration, climate change adaptation and carbon sequestration.

Robert Raw

Chief Operating Officer

PhD Zoology; MSc Zoology (Marine Biology); BSc (Honours) Zoology; BSc Zoology, Ecology and Marine Biology

Dr Robert Raw is Chief Operating Officer at C4 EcoSolutions, overseeing a diverse team of experts in the development of climate change adaptation and mitigation projects. He has a keen interest in the use of innovative, multidisciplinary approaches to sustainable development. This approach includes integrating diverse social and economic perspectives – and engineering options where required – into nature-based solutions that sustainably build the climate resilience of vulnerable communities. During his time at C4, Robert has specialised in the development of projects for the Green Climate Fund (GCF), drawing on his experience from over 25 GCF projects to provide technical guidance and oversight for all adaptation projects across the company portfolio. In addition to the technical guidance he provides internally to the C4 team, Robert applies his knowledge of the GCF to support governments in developing their GCF country programmes, as well as training UN staff in the development of GCF projects. He has also assisted a multilateral agency in navigating the GCF accreditation process. Prior to joining C4, Robert undertook academic research in the field of ecology, gaining diverse experience in habitat fragmentation, population demographics, marine biology and behavioural ecology. During his studies, Robert also worked part-time as an environmental consultant, conducting EIAs for the renewable energy sector in South Africa.

Nicholas Tye

Senior Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Ecology, Environment and Conservation; BSc (Honours) Ecology, Environment and Conservation; BSc Zoology and Ecology, Environment and Conservation

Nick joined the C4 EcoSolutions team in 2012 as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. Through his work with C4, Nick has developed wide-ranging experience in designing, monitoring and implementing climate change adaptation projects, with a focus on ecosystem-based adaptation, in developing countries. His work at C4 EcoSolutions has included: leading the development of more than 10 adaptation project concept notes (including GEF PIFs) for GEF, Adaptation Fund and GCF; leading and coordinating the development of more than 10 full adaptation project proposals for GEF, Adaptation Fund and GCF; undertaking baseline assessments and mid-term reviews of adaptation and environmental projects; and developing the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPA) for South Sudan. Nick is also currently the Chief Technical Advisor for an Adaptation Fund project in Cambodia, a GEF-SCCF project in Albania and a GEF-LDCF project in Angola. Before joining C4, Nick worked as a Biodiversity Specialist – focusing on birds – for the North West Provincial Government in South Africa. This work linked to his MSc research which focused on biodiversity in riverine ecosystems in the Kruger National Park.

Ruan de Wet

Head of Climate Change Mitigation

MSc Geology; BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences; BSc Applied Biology and Geology

Ruan joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2017 and is the Head of Climate Change Mitigation. He holds an MSc from the University of Cape Town (UCT), where he investigated the use of environmental isotope geochemistry in the monitoring of natural resources. Prior to joining C4, Ruan worked for an environmental consulting firm with a focus on grassland and savanna veld management. While working at C4, Ruan has contributed to several GCF, CDM, VCS and BioCarbon Fund projects as a carbon and remote sensing specialist. He is particularly interested in how climate change mitigation can support the sustainable development of rural economies and vulnerable communities.

Sarah Catto

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant; Team Lead

MSc Conservation Biology; BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences; BSc Applied Biology, Ecology and Evolution

Sarah works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant and a Team Lead, having joined the company in 2018. She holds an MSc degree in Conservation Biology from the University of Cape Town, through which she investigated how fluctuating anthropogenic food availability affects behaviour and parental care of Red-winged Starlings. Since joining C4, Sarah has worked on the development of several Green Climate Fund (GCF) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects in countries across Africa and Asia, as well as being closely involved in the development of National Adaptation Planning (NAP) processes for several developing countries. Sarah’s interests lie specifically in conservation, climate justice, sustainable development and mitigating human-wildlife conflict.

Kevin Emslie

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant; Team Lead

MSc Zoology; BSc (Honours) Wildlife Management; BSc Veterinary Biology

Kevin works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. His previous experience includes working as an endangered species monitor in northern KwaZulu-Natal, where he was involved in the daily monitoring and management of species such as African wild dog, cheetah and black rhinoceros. Prior to working at C4 Kevin worked as a research technician for the Sasol Serval Project in Secunda, Mpumalanga, where he was involved in studying the population ecology of the elusive feline. His additional experience includes involvement in studies focusing on populations of large carnivores – including leopards and spotted hyaenas – and research on small carnivores and rodents in disturbed landscapes. Kevin is particularly interested in biodiversity conservation, the mitigation of human-wildlife conflict, sustainable development and the role of the biological control of rodent pests in strengthening food security.

Jessica Allen

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

PhD Zoology; BSc (Honours) Zoology; BSc Zoology Botany, Geography and Geology

Dr Jessica Allen works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. Prior to working at C4, she held a Post-Doctoral position at Stellenbosch University. Her PhD thesis focussed on latitudinal patterns of variation in adaptive capacity and phenotypic plasticity in arthropods. Jessica is particularly interested in climate change adaptation, invasive species and environmental restoration. Her skills include data handling and analysis in R, with a focus on mixed modelling, Bayesian inference and mapping, as well as data visualisation and science communication. Her work at C4 has included the Natural Soil Infrastructure and Ecosystem Services Assessment research project (funded by the South African government’s Department of Environmental Affairs), as well as large-scale adaptation projects in South Africa and abroad.

Sean Foden

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

BA Geography and Environmental Sciences

Sean works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant, having joined the company in 2017. Through his work on developing climate change adaptation and mitigation projects for the Green Climate Fund (GCF), Global Environment Facility and Adaptation Fund, Sean has developed a keen interest in urban climate resilience and disaster risk reduction within small island developing states across the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Pacific regions. This experience includes the design of innovative projects to climate-proof key economic sectors through the development of innovative financial risk reduction products, increasing low-emissions development and strengthening disaster risk reduction capacities in the beneficiary countries. Sean has also gained an in-depth understanding of the intricacies of GCF, including the crafting of a climate rationale, developing a robust theory of change, aligning project interventions with the GCF investment criteria, and compiling full submission packages that meet the requirements of the fund.

Lucy Lavirotte

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Political Science; MPhil Climate Change and Development; BA Political Science

Lucy joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2018 to focus on the development of climate change adaptation projects in French-speaking countries. Lucy holds an MSc degree in Political Science from Université de Montréal and an MPhil in Climate Change and Development through the African Climate & Development Institute (ACDI) at the University of Cape Town. Her interests lie particularly in community-based adaptation, food security and multi-scalar governance. In line with these interests, Lucy’s research focused on the barriers and enablers for adaptation to droughts among women farmers in informal settlements. Prior to joining C4, Lucy worked as an analyst at the Third World Studies Center in Manila, focusing on the environmental impacts of the palm oil industry on vulnerable communities. Following this, she joined the sustainable development association Comité 21, where she was involved in the preparation for COP22.

Thabisisani Ndhlovu

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Conservation Ecology; MSc Tropical Resource Ecology; BSc Geography and Biology

Thabisisani works at C4 EcoSolutions as a Climate Change and Environmental Consultant. His work at C4 has included: undertaking baseline assessments for GEF-LDCF projects in The Gambia and Lesotho; developing a programme document for a large-scale ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA) in Turkey’s Mediterranean forests; and conducting research on the capacity of restored subtropical thicket to support wildlife and sequester carbon under the Department of Environmental Affairs’ Subtropical Thicket Restoration Project. Thabisisani holds a Master’s degree in Conservation Ecology from Stellenbosch University, where he investigated the impacts of a widespread alien invasive tree, Prosopis, on the ecosystem structure, function and agricultural productivity of Nama Karoo rangeland in South Africa.

James Kinghorn

Economics and Climate Change Consultant

MEcon Environmental and Natural Resource Economics; BSc Honours Geography and Economics; BSc Geography and Economics

James works at C4 EcoSolutions as an Economics and Climate Change Consultant. He holds a MEcon in environmental and natural resource economics from Rhodes University and has five years’ experience conducting applied research in the field of environmental and resource economics. Outputs have included contributions to strategic projects surrounding climate change adaptation and mitigation as well as biodiversity finance and offsets guidance. He has also formed part of various decision-making processes at local, regional and national scales, including environmental impact assessments, strategic environmental assessments and municipal-level project appraisals. James is well versed in quantitative approaches to natural resource economics, including financial modelling, statistical analysis, economic impact assessment, cost-benefit analysis and ecosystem services valuation. Previous roles include one year of employment in the financial sector and three years managing humanitarian aid and disaster relief programmes in South Sudan, Greece, Nepal, Dominica and Mozambique.

Nicola Rule

Climate Change and Environmental Consultant

MSc Environmental Change and Management; BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences; BSc Applied Biology and Genetics

Nicola works at C4 EcoSolutions as an Analyst, having completed an internship with the company. She holds an MSc in Environmental Change and Management from the University of Oxford, where she investigated the impact of immigration on urban food systems and sustainable diets. Prior to undertaking her MSc, she worked in the field of environmental management in the local government sector in South Africa, with a focus on protected area governance and mainstreaming sustainability across government departments. Nicola is particularly interested in adaptive environmental governance and urban climate change adaptation.

Willemien Calitz

Editor and Communication Specialist

PhD Media Studies; MSc Media Studies; BHons Journalism; BA Languages and Journalism

Dr Willemien Calitz joined C4 in 2020 as the Editor and Communication Specialist. Her background includes a variety of strategic communication and media experience, including strategic communication for non-governmental organisations and research institutes, journalism and media lecturing. Willemien obtained her PhD in Media Studies in 2020 at the University of Cape Town (UCT), focusing on China’s sustainable development and human rights reputation. Her MSc in Media Studies was obtained in 2014 at the University of Oregon (USA) following a BPhil Honours at Stellenbosch University and BA Languages and Journalism degree at the University of Pretoria. Willemien’s interests lie in communicating the interconnected and layered issues surrounding climate change in a way that is factual and scientifically correct, but also understandable to the layperson. Her recent years of experience as researcher and lecturer enables her to focus on communication that is rooted in science, but accessible to the broader community. She also contributes her writing and editing skills, as well as writing training skills to C4.

Hannes Kok

Analyst

BSc (Honours) Geography; BA Social Dynamics

Hannes works at C4 EcoSolutions as an Analyst, having completed an internship with the company. He holds a BA in Social Dynamics, a BSc (Honours) in Geography and is currently completing an MSc in Environmental Management through the University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), where he is investigating the relationship between climate change and development. Hannes is particularly interested in the social and ecological impacts of development and the geopolitical dimensions of environmental change.

James Lister

Analyst

MSc Geology; BSc (Honours) Geology; BSc Environmental & Geographical Science and Geology

James joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as an intern. He holds an MSc in Geology from the University of Cape Town, where he investigated the evolution of a volcano in the Chilean Andes. James is particularly interested in how ecosystem-based adaptation can be used to improve the resilience of vulnerable communities to the impacts of climate change and the potential to link his geological background into climate change adaptation.

Patrick Porter

Analyst

BSc (Honours) in Biology

Patrick joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2019 as an intern. He graduated from the University of Manchester in 2017 with a BSc (Honours) in Biology, specialising in behavioural and evolutionary ecology. Shortly after, Patrick participated in a conservation management internship at Somkhanda Game Reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, investigating the effectiveness of hair snare surveys in monitoring wild dog populations. Patrick is particularly interested in biodiversity conservation and the potential for ecosystem restoration to mitigate the impacts of climate change.

Kelly Vlieghe

Analyst

PhD Zoology; BSc (Honours) Zoology; BSc Zoology, Environmental and Geographical Sciences

Kelly works at C4 EcoSolutions as an analyst, having joined the company in 2019. She holds a PhD in Zoology from the University of Cape Town where she investigated the potential role of termites in the formation of enigmatic landscape features known as ‘fairy circles’ in the Namib Desert. Prior to joining C4 she worked as a research assistant at Stellenbosch University, looking at the use of cover crops and adjacent natural habitats to attract beneficial insects to apple orchards in the Grabouw Valley. Kelly is particularly interested in ecological entomology, biodiversity conservation and finding innovative ways to improve the resilience of ecosystems to climate change.

Alicia Raw

Programme Manager

MSc Zoology; BSc (Honours) Botany; BSc Evolutionary Biology, Biodiversity and Zoology

Alicia Raw joined the C4 EcoSolutions team in 2018 and works as a Programme Manager, assisting in the development and management of climate change adaptation projects. Prior to joining C4, she focused on environmental impact assessments for the renewable energy sector. Her academic background is in the fields of Evolutionary Biology, Biodiversity, Botany and Zoology, with an MSc from the University of Cape Town. Through her academic and professional careers, Alicia developed an appreciation for the importance of natural ecosystems and the role they can play in sustainable development. In particular, she has a keen interest in the potential for using ecosystem restoration to help vulnerable communities adapt to climate change.

Dylan Beukes

Intern

MSc, Ecology; BSc (Honours) Ecology, Environment and Conservation Sciences; BSc, Biological Sciences

Dylan joined C4 in 2020 as an Intern. He holds an MSc in Ecology from the University of the Witwatersrand where he investigated the consequences of grazing resistance adaptations on the population genetics of Rhodohypoxis baurii var. platypetala in the Drakensberg. Prior to joining C4, he worked as an intern at the University of Pretoria in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences where he gained experience in project management and communications, as well as working as a research and field assistant. His fields of interest include ecosystem functioning, developing sustainable interactions between environments and people, biodiversity conservation, and effective communication of scientific work to the public.

Paul Fourie

Intern

PGDip (Sustainable Development), BA Environmental Management

Paul joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds a Postgraduate Diploma in Sustainable Development from the University of Stellenbosch, with a specialisation in food systems sustainability. He has worked in the social development and ecotourism sectors, where he explored how innovation in food systems and land management can create new livelihoods for a sustainable future. Paul is particularly interested in the role of regenerative agriculture in carbon capture and aiding the adaption of socio-ecological systems to climate change.

Erin Hill

Intern

MPhil in Environment, Society and Sustainability; PGCE; BFA Fine Art and Psychology

Erin joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds an MPhil in Environment, Society and Sustainability from the University of Cape Town. Prior to this, her educational background was in art, psychology and education. Through her studies, Erin pursued her interests in human-animal-earth relations and became fascinated by the complex challenges associated with managing and communicating climate change and environmental adaptation. Her master's thesis drew on multiple disciplines to analyse the framing of the City of Cape Town's communications to the public during the recent Cape Town water crisis. Erin's interests include resource and crisis management, environmental education and communication, land restoration and conservation, and safeguarding animals and people. She enjoys working on projects which take interdisciplinary approaches to problem-solving, especially those which value the interconnectedness of all life forms.

Ella Hall

Intern

PGDip (Sustainable Development), BA Development and Environment

Ella joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds a Bachelor's degree in Development and Environment from Stellenbosch University, and a Postgraduate Diploma in Sustainable Development from the Sustainability Institute focusing on renewable energy and sustainable cities. Her interests include the complexities of navigating a just transition to a zero-carbon future, in particular the fields of renewable energy, sustainable food systems and urban governance.

Makhotso Gaseitsiwe

Intern

BA in Environmental Science and English

Makhotso joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds a BA in Environmental Sciences and English from the University of Botswana in 2017. Prior to joining C4, Makhotso worked as a volunteer intern for the Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa (GDSA) Secretariat and a consultant for Conservation International (CI). Makhotso has developed a particular interest in the dynamics of climate change on community development and climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Andrew King

Intern

MSc Environmental Science; BSc (Honours) Environmental Science; BSc Environmental Science and Economics

Andrew joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds an MSc in Environmental Science from Rhodes University where he researched the extent and nature of the green collar employment sector in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Prior to joining C4, he gained experience in the green building sector working at an NPO, dealing with the sustainability and environmental certification of new and existing buildings, as well as the analysis of waste, energy and water usage data. During this time, Andrew was a part of the 2019 WWF Graduate Internship Programme working as a member of a larger team of diverse graduates. Andrew has particular interests in environmental economics, ecosystem services, and socio-ecological systems, as well as an entrenched passion for contributing positively to human and environmental well-being locally and internationally.

Tim Kirsten

Intern

BSc (Honours) in Biological Sciences, BSc in Applied Biology and Environmental & Geographical Sciences

Tim joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He graduated from the University of Cape Town in 2019 with a BSc (Honours) degree in Biological Sciences. His Honours thesis involved running geospatial models to determine which environmental variables determine plant species richness patterns in the Greater Cape Floristic Region, with a focus on climatic and soil properties. Earlier in 2019, Tim participated in a three-month course with the Organization for Tropical Studies based mainly in Skukuza, Kruger National Park, where he designed and worked on various field studies involving biodiversity surveys, soil and vegetation dynamics and ecology of rhino middens. Tim is particularly interested in the relationship between climate change, ecology and people.

Dylan Marks

Intern

MSc in Climate Change, Development and Policy; BEng in Chemical Engineering

Dylan joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds a BEng in Chemical Engineering from the University of Edinburgh and an MSc in Climate Change, Development and Policy from the University of Sussex, where he studied the challenges and opportunities of moving towards a low-carbon, climate-resilient world. His dissertation investigated the role of cities in driving socio-ecological transitions, with a focus on the actions of transnational municipal networks. Dylan is particularly interested in energy policy, urban climate governance and nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Current Masunungure

Intern

MSc in Environmental Science; BSc (Honours) Forest Resources and Wildlife Management

Current joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds an MSc in Environmental Science from Rhodes University, where he investigated the link between rural livelihoods and ecosystem change in two dry-land sites of Southern Africa over a period of 30 years. The research fieldwork involved extensive travelling and stakeholder engagement, offering him with practical experience in navigating rural communities of both Zimbabwe and South Africa. Current is particularly interested in how the systems thinking approach can be applied to improve decision-making in natural resource management and the adaptive capacity of rural livelihood systems to the impacts of climate change.

Rosanna McLean

Intern

MA in Environment, Development and Policy; BA in Environmental Science and Anthropology

Rosie joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds an MA in Environment, Development and Policy from the University of Sussex; a BA in Environmental Science and Anthropology from Rhodes University; and a Higher Certificate in Film, Television and Entertainment, cum laude, from AFDA Cape Town. During her master's thesis, she drew on a political ecology framework to investigate current media narratives about an all-female anti-poaching unit in South Africa's Kruger National Park. Rosie is particularly interested in climate change adaptation, political ecology, peace and conflict studies, and gender and development studies.

Kervin Prayag

Intern

MSc Biological Sciences; BSc (Honours) Biological Sciences; BSc Applied Biology, Ecology & Evolution, and Marine Biology

Kervin joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. He holds an MSc from the University of Cape Town, where he investigated the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated relative humidity levels on the nutritional value of maize and wheat plants. Kervin is particularly interested in climate change adaptation and mitigation, plant eco-physiology and ecological statistics. He also is passionate about geopolitics and international relations, particularly in French-speaking African countries.

Miren Schleicher

Intern

MSc in Conservation Medicine; BSc in Environmental Science

Miren joined C4 EcoSolutions in 2020 as an intern. She holds an MSc in Conservation Medicine from Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, where she investigated quantitative methods to improve the rehabilitation success of endangered African penguin chicks for release back into the wild. Miren is particularly interested in biodiversity conservation and studying the links between humans, animals and the environment to improve resiliency against the impacts of climate change.

Debbie Buckley

Administrative Office Manager

Debbie joined C4 in 2014 and currently serves as the Administrative Office Manager. She is versatile, reliable and efficient, with more than 10 years’ experience supporting managers and executives in fast-paced environments. Through her role at C4, Debbie has developed a diverse skillset, including client relations, human resources, recruiting, project management and administrative support