Over the past decade, C4 has worked on 148 projects across 77 countries across Africa, Asia, Central America, and the Caribbean. Our clients include the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), private firms such as CarbonPlus Capital, and national governments.

ProjectCountryClientDurationDescription
Large-scale Ecosystem-based Adaptation in The Gambia: developing a climate-resilient, natural resource-based economyThe GambiaUNEP2015–2016C4 developed the Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal which were submitted to the GCF and approved in June 2016. This project will build the climate resilience of rural Gambian communities and facilitate the development of a sustainable natural resource-based (green) economy by implementing large-scale EbA. Activities will be implemented within three components: i) large-scale EbA to build a climate-resilient natural resource base; ii) development of markets for natural resource-based businesses; and iii) policy support, institutional strengthening and knowledge generation to support the large-scale implementation of EbA.
Enhancing climate resilience of India’s coastal communitiesIndiaUNDP2016C4 developed a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal which were submitted to the GCF and approved in October 2018. Combining GCF grant finance with leveraged co-finance, the project will support the Government of India to enhance the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities, particularly women, in the coastal areas of India to climate change and extreme events. The project will shift the coastal development paradigm such that ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation are integrated into coastal management and planning by the public sector, the private sector and civil society. This will be achieved by: i) investing in ecological infrastructure to buffer against climate-induced hazards, particularly storm surges; ii) supporting climate-resilient coastal livelihoods; and iii) enhancing climate-risk informed cross-sectoral planning and governance of the coastal zone.
Enhancing climate resilience and water security in BahrainKingdom of BahrainUNEP2018C4 developed a Concept Note, Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal which were submitted to the GCF and approved in October 2018. The project will support the Government of Bahrain to enhance water security under future climate conditions. Project activities will build the resilience of Bahrain’s water sector to climate change by improving demand management and creating a reliable knowledge base for climate-resilient water management.
Addressing urgent coastal adaptation needs and capacity gaps in AngolaAngolaUNEP2018–2021 C4 is providing technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will enhance institutional and community-level capacity to adapt to climate change along the coast of Angola. This will be achieved by: i) enhancing the national early warning system; ii) restoring coastal ecosystems and demonstrating adaptation interventions to local communities; and iii) enhancing institutional coordination for proactive adaptation in Angola. Technical advisory services include budget revisions, workplan development, writing Terms of References, overseeing M&E and authoring of summary reports.
GCF Strategy and Training Course for UNEPGlobalUNEP2018–2019C4 is developing the strategy for UNEP’s overall engagement with the GCF, as well as a training course for UNEP staff on GCF proposal development. The high-level strategy covers inter alia UNEP’s vision, competitive advantages and institutional arrangements for its engagement with the GCF.
Building climate resilience in agricultural systems of BotswanaBotswanaUNDP2018–2019C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. The project will increase the climate resilience of Botswana’s agricultural sector in the central and north-eastern districts of the country. This will be achieved by: i) strengthening the capacity of national and local government to implement climate-resilient agricultural practices; ii) introducing climate-resilient agricultural techniques and technologies; and iii) improving the provision of climate information in the agricultural sector.
Building the resilience of local communities in Zambia through the introduction of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) into priority ecosystems, including wetlands and forestsZambiaUNEP2018–2019C4 is leading the development of a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will increase the capacity of government and local communities in Zambia living around wetlands and forests to adapt to climate change using EbA. This will be achieved through three complementary outcomes: i) technical and institutional capacity to integrate EbA into existing management plans for ecosystems is increased at a local and national level; ii) resilience of communities living around degraded ecosystems is built against climate change impacts through the implementation of EbA interventions in wetlands and forests; and iii) communities living around the project intervention sites have increased capacity to adopt alternative livelihoods and climate-smart agriculture techniques to decrease their vulnerability to climate change and reduce degradation of ecosystems.
Adaptation initiative for climate-vulnerable offshore small islands and riverine charlands in BangladeshBangladeshUNDP2018–2019C4 co-developed a Project Proposal for this AF-funded project which has been submitted for consideration at the 33rd Board Meeting in March 2019. The project will increase the resilience of vulnerable island-dwelling communities to the adverse impacts of climate change. These impacts include the increased frequency of and intensity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, floods and climate-induced natural disasters. The project will address these impacts by promoting climate-resilient agriculture, implementing an integrated approach to disaster risk management and establishing improved climate information services.
Building climate resilience through ecosystem-based adaptation in Rakhine State and Irrawaddy River Delta, MyanmarMyanmarUNEP2018–2019C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note and Project Preparation Facility Application for this GCF-funded project. The project will support the Government of Myanmar to implement climate change adaptation interventions in Rakhine State and the Irrawaddy River Delta. It will focus on increasing the resilience of coastal communities to floods, cyclones and storm surges. This will be achieved by: i) mainstreaming EbA and integrated coastal zone management into sectoral policies and development planning; ii) implementing ecosystem-based adaptation and integrated coastal zone management; and iii) developing climate-resilient livelihoods.
Enhancing regional climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean Marine and Coastal AreasAlbania, Algeria, Libya, Montenegro, Morocco and TunisiaUNEP2018–2019C4 led the development of a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The project will enhance the capacities of countries in the Mediterranean region to adapt to climate change and will influence wider development processes in the region. This will be achieved through four complementary outcomes: i) stakeholder engagement on climate change adaptation is strengthened and partnerships are enhanced; ii) adaptation mainstreamed into local ICZM plans; iii) facilitated access to international climate change adaptation financing; and iv) strengthened science-policy interface, accessibility of related knowledge and enhanced regional climate information.
Malekula Water Supply Project: Increase Resilience of Vulnerable and Marginalized Communities of Malekula Island through Integrated Water Resource Management and Ecosystem-based InterventionsVanuatuUNEP2018–2019C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. Climate change in Vanuatu is reducing the availability of fresh water, with groundwater becoming increasingly saline because of sea level rise and droughts becoming more frequent. This is having a significant impact on the lives and livelihoods of vulnerable rural communities. These impacts will be addressed by creating a climate-resilient water supply system on Malekula, shifting the development pathway away from small, decentralised systems which are vulnerable to climate change, towards larger centralised systems which are more climate-resilient. To achieve this objective, GCF funds will be used to invest in adaptation interventions that: i) create an enabling environment for sustainable water management at the national, provincial and community levels; ii) improve the climate resilience of water supply infrastructure, including emergency supplies; and iii) enhance the climate resilience of catchment management to improve hydrological flow, especially around primary extraction points.
Strengthening the resilience of the most vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in the Philippines’ Eastern SeaboardPhilippinesUNDP2017–2019C4 is leading the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project will support the Government of the Philippines to enhance the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities along the Eastern Seaboard to climate change and extreme weather events. The project will catalyse a shift towards ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation in the country’s approach to coastal planning and development, with a focus on Integrated Coastal Zone Management. This will be achieved by: i) assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme climate events; ii) supporting community- and ecosystem-based livelihoods which are resilient to climate change; and iii) integrating climate change into local planning, including comprehensive land use plans for vulnerable coastal zones.
Resilience to hurricanes, floods and droughts in the building sector in Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and BarbudaUNEP2017–2019C4 is leading the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project will build the climate resilience of Antigua and Barbuda to the impacts of hurricanes by: i) supporting the mainstreaming of climate-proofing measures into funding mechanisms, policies and standards for the building sector; ii) strengthening technical capacity for planning, implementing and monitoring climate-proofing and other adaptation interventions in the building sector; iii) assessing barriers, identify financial instruments, and develop operational guidelines to enable the private sector to access funding for adaptation in buildings; iv) climate-proofing identified public buildings to improve resilience to extreme climate events – including tropical storms, hurricanes, droughts and extended dry periods, floods and rising air temperatures – and improve adaptation interventions during such events; and v) developing and implementing plans for climate-proofing activities and interventions in community buildings.
Reliance Composting ProjectSouth AfricaReliance Compost2015–2019C4 developed the Project Description Document to be validated under the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS). This project will: i) enable Reliance Composting to generate Verified Carbon Units (VCUs) through the aerobic composting of garden and park waste; ii) reduce methane emissions by preventing the anaerobic decay of garden and park waste; and iii) promote the financial sustainability of Reliance Composting by enabling the sale of VCUs on the voluntary carbon market.
Climate-resilient landscapes for sustainable developmentGhanaUNEP2015–2019C4 co-developed a Concept Note and Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. This project was approved and will enhance the climate-resilience of smallholder farming communities in northern Ghana by improving food security and growing the agro-based rural economy.
Enhancing capacity, knowledge and technology support to build climate resilience of vulnerable developing countriesMauritania, Nepal, Seychelles, ChinaUNEP2012–2019C4 developed a Project Identification Form and Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. C4 also conducted baseline studies for the project in Mauritania, Nepal and Seychelles. The project is building climate resilience using EbA in LDC and Small Island Developing States of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa. It is achieving this by increasing institutional capacity, mobilising knowledge and transferring appropriate technologies on climate change adaptation to Mauritania, Nepal and Seychelles. Tasks completed by C4 have included: i) facilitating the project launch workshop; ii) developing work plans for each pilot country; ii) coordinating EbA and Regional Network workshops; and iv) developing Terms of References for project consultants.
Pilot Program for Climate ResilienceNiger, Mozambique, ZambiaIFC2011–2019Anthony Mills has led the development of this $100 million programme of private sector investments for the International Finance Corporation (IFC). The investments, which build climate resilience for local communities, span a range of sectors including: agriculture, mobile phone technology, sustainable forestry, REDD+, and weather index-based insurance.
Mainstreaming incentives for biodiversity conservation in climate-resilient growth economy (CRGE)EthiopiaUNDP2018C4 conducted a Mid-term Review (MTR) for this project which is funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project objective is to ensure that the biodiversity of Ethiopia is protected from current and future threats by ensuring that development and investment decisions do not impact negatively on biodiversity in the country. This will be achieved by: i) strengthening the enabling framework for mainstreaming incentives for biodiversity conservation into the country’s economic development; and ii) implementing Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in at least 20,000 hectares of Ethiopia’s Afromontane ecoregion, resulting in improved stewardship by community land managers and reduced pressure on biodiversity.
Advancing the National Adaptation Planning process in the MaldivesRepublic of the MaldivesUNEP2018C4 is developing a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of the Maldives to be submitted to the GCF. Tasks include: i) integrating and addressing comments on the initial draft; and ii) providing a final draft.
Advancing the National Adaptation Planning process in NauruRepublic of NauruUNEP2018C4 is developing a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Nauru to be submitted to the GCF. At present a final draft is being prepared for submission to the GCF, based on comments received under review.
Bukit Tigapuluh Sustainable Landscape Project (Project Pangolin)IndonesiaUNEP2018C4 is leading the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project is pioneering sustainable rubber plantation in Indonesia and will mitigate carbon emissions by: i) planting rubber as well as indigenous forest trees in degraded landscapes; and ii) reducing deforestation of high-carbon stock forests adjacent to the rubber plantations.
Angola Urban EbA: Using an EbA approach to increase the resilience of three cities in Angola to climate changeAngolaUNEP2018C4 is developing a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will: i) improve access to climate information to inform climate-resilient planning and development in cities; ii) reduce the vulnerability of poor urban communities to climate change by implementing adaptation interventions in target cities; iii) strengthen the technical and institutional capacity of local and national governments to integrate adaptation into development planning; and iv) enhance knowledge and awareness among the public – including government, NGOs, and local communities – of this approach.
Building capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process in the SeychellesRepublic of SeychellesUNEP2018C4 is developing a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Seychelles to be submitted to the GCF. Tasks include: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) integrating and addressing comments on the initial draft; and iii) providing a final draft.
Sustainable Land Management in the Qaraoun Catchment, LebanonLebanonUNDP2018C4 conducted a Mid-term Review (MTR) for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The purpose of this MTR was to assess project performance to date (regarding relevance, effectiveness, efficiency), identify successes and challenges faced, and provide recommendations to ensure that the project meets its intended targets.
Strengthening the capacity of government and communities in South Sudan to adapt to climate changeSouth SudanUNEP2018C4 is leading the development of a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will increase the resilience of vulnerable communities in two states in South Sudan to the observed and predicted impacts of climate change. This will be achieved using a series of complementary interventions which will: i) increase the capacity of the government to implement climate change adaptation interventions; ii) upgrade the national meteorological network and support the production of short-range forecasts; iii) demonstrate the benefits of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) for buffering against climate change impacts, as well as for increasing the provision of ecosystem goods and services; iv) improve access to water for agriculture and livestock; v) foster sustainable, climate-resilient production of crops, fodder and fuelwood to reduce pressures on natural resources; and vi) produce and disseminate knowledge on climate change adaptation to inform evidence-based decision-making in relevant sectors.
Ecosystem-based Adaptation to increase climate resilience in the Central American Dry Corridor and Arid Zones of the Dominican RepublicGuatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá & The
Dominican Republic
UNEP2018C4 co-developed the Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. The project will build the resilience of vulnerable communities in Central America’s Dry Corridor and the Dominican Republic’s Arid Zones to the impacts of increasing temperatures, droughts and extreme rainfall. These impacts will be addressed at the landscape and household levels in prioritised watersheds by promoting: i) Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) across forests and agroforestry systems; and ii) water-efficient technologies in communities. This will be achieved through: i) capacity building for local governments, financial institutions and communities; ii) loans and microfinance for EbA activities and small green businesses; iii) mainstreaming EbA into policies and creating incentives; and iv) on-the-ground implementation of EbA.
Improving resilience of food security and water management to climate variability and changeGhanaUNEP2018C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note under the Simplified Approval Process for this GCF-funded project. The project will build on GCF Readiness Programme activities to elicit a paradigm shift in Ghana’s approach to water and drought management, with a focus on improving food security under conditions of climate change. This will be achieved by: i) building institutional capacity for water and drought management; ii) enhancing hydrometeorological service delivery systems; iii) implementing innovative water management practices; and iv) improving knowledge management frameworks.
Urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate-resilient development in the Kathmandu Valley, NepalNepalUNEP2018C4 is leading the development of a Project Document for this GEF-funded project. The project will integrate the use of urban EbA to reduce the impacts of climate change and promote green infrastructure in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. This will be achieved by: i) developing the capacity for municipalities to include urban EbA into their planning processes; ii) strengthening knowledge management for EbA in Nepal to include urban EbA; and iii) implementing urban EbA interventions to strengthen the climate resilience of local communities living in the Kathmandu Valley.
An integrated landscape approach to enhancing the climate resilience of small-scale farmers and pastoralists in TajikistanTajikistanUNDP2018C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note and Project Proposal for this AF-funded project. The project will build the climate resilience of rural communities in Tajikistan by implementing a multi-hazard approach to catchment management which includes the use of EbA. This project will: i) strengthen the institutional and technical capacity for climate-risk management in Tajikistan; ii) establish EbA protocols for rural communities to strengthen climate resilience; and iii) establish knowledge management processes which help inform climate-resilient catchment management and the use of EbA in Tajikistan.
Strengthening Lesotho’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processLesothoUNEP2018C4 is developing a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Lesotho to be submitted to the GCF. Tasks include: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Lesotho; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Lesotho and UNEP.
GCF Readiness Programme in Georgia: developing a NAP Readiness proposalGeorgiaUNEP2018C4 is developing a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Georgia to be submitted to the GCF. Tasks include: i) conducting an in-country mission, to meet and discuss with relevant stakeholders existing adaptation initiatives in Georgia and adaptation needs which the NAP could support; ii) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Georgia; and iii) preparing a NAP project proposal in partnership with the Focal Point in Georgia and UNEP.
Reducing the climate change vulnerability of local communities in Uganda through Ecosystem-based Adaptation in forest and wetland ecosystemsUgandaUNEP2018C4 developed a Project Document for UNEP which was submitted to the GEF/LDCF. The project will reduce Uganda’s vulnerability to climate change by: i) providing knowledge support by conducting climate change vulnerability assessments and ecosystem services mapping; ii) facilitating the integration of EbA options into forest and wetland management plans; iii) building the capacity of local communities and government authorities to plan and implement EbA as part of local and national adaptation strategies; iv) restoring degraded forest and wetland ecosystems to reduce vulnerability of local communities to climate change impacts and demonstrate adaptive benefits of EbA; v) promoting alternative climate-resilient livelihoods to reduce pressure on forest and wetland ecosystems; vi) developing a strategy for up-scaling, sustaining and replicating EbA interventions; and vii) increasing knowledge and awareness of EbA at national level through awareness-raising and long-term research.
Climate-proofed water supply and sanitation for Livingstone, ZambiaZambiaGlobal Water Partnership2018C4 developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project which will be implemented in Livingstone, Zambia. The project will increase the resilience of Livingstone’s water supply to climate change-induced fluctuations in the Zambezi River levels, while reducing emissions by capturing methane and increased efficiency of pumping operations.
Building capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process in SwazilandSwazilandUNEP2018C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Swaziland which was approved by the GCF. Tasks include: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Swaziland; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Swaziland and UNEP.
Building capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process in ZimbabweZimbabweUNEP2018C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Zimbabwe which was approved by the GCF. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Zimbabwe; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Zimbabwe and UNEP.
Restoring degraded forest landscapes and promoting community-based, sustainable and integrated natural resource management in the Rora Habab Plateau, EritreaEritreaUNDP2018C4 developed a Project Document which was submitted to GEF and approved for implementation. The project will mainstream sustainable land management, forestry and biodiversity conservation into land-use planning and agricultural production practices in the Nakfa Sub-Zoba of Eritrea. Land degradation will also be addressed through community participation in ecological restoration of mountain forests
Building capacity for LDCs to participate effectively in intergovernmental climate change processesGlobal (Least Developed Countries, LDCs)UNEP2018C4 conducted a Mid-term Review (MTR) for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. Tasks included: i) reviewing relevant project documents including PIRs, HYRs, Prodoc, Result Framework and indicators; ii) conducting interviews with relevant project partners and beneficiaries to assess strengths and weaknesses in the project so far; iii) preparing an MTR report which included a critical analysis and evaluation of the project design, progress towards results, implementation arrangements and sustainability; and vi) formulating actionable recommendations to facilitate progress towards end-of-project targets.
Assisting non-LDC developing countries with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation PlansGlobal (non-LDCs)UNEP2018C4 conducted a Mid-term Review (MTR) for this GEF-funded project. Tasks included: i) reviewing relevant project documents including PIRs, HYRs, Prodoc, Results Framework and Indicators; ii) conducting interviews with relevant project partners and beneficiaries to assess strengths and weaknesses in the project so far; iii) preparing an MTR report which included a critical assessment and evaluation of the project design, progress towards results, implementation arrangements and sustainability; and vi) formulating actionable recommendations to facilitate progress towards end-of-project targets.
Improving Climate Resilience in Eswatini through the integrated management of Mountain EcosystemsKingdom of eSwatiniAcclimatise2017–2018C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note, Pre-Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project will strengthen the climate resilience of mountain catchments in Kingdom of eSwatini by implementing a climate-resilient integrated catchment management approach which incorporates EbA and ecosystem-based businesses for local communities.
Strengthening Rwanda’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processRwandaUNEP2017–2018C4 is co-developing a Readiness and Preparatory Support Project Document for this GEF-funded project which will increase Rwanda’s capacity to advance its National Adaptation Plan process. The project will assist the Government of Rwanda with implementing the NAP process by strengthening its: i) technical and institutional capacity for medium- and long-term adaptation planning; ii) technical capacity to mobilise funding for climate change adaptation; and iii) scientific capacity to monitor, evaluate, and generate knowledge on adaptation interventions. Such strengthening will be achieved through three components, namely: i) technical and institutional capacity for the NAP process in Rwanda; ii) advancing climate-resilient technologies and practices; and iii) monitoring, reviewing and knowledge-sharing to learn from the NAP process in Rwanda.
Building climate resilience through ecosystem-based adaptation and natural resource-based businesses in South AfricaSouth AfricaGIZ and the Government of South Africa2017–2018C4 developed a Concept Note, Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal which will be submitted to the GCF. The project will support the Government of South Africa to enhance the resilience of vulnerable rural communities to climate change and extreme events. Working with South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) and the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), C4 developed the project which will rehabilitate and sustainably manage i) subtropical thickets; ii) coastal and riparian forests; iii) woodlands; iv) grasslands; and iv) wetland systems in four provinces, supported by national policy and institutional advances.
Developing rules/manual for greenhouse gas emissions and sinks accounting, measurement, reporting and verification procedures for the grassland, reduced/zero till and soil systems in South Africa in preparation for the imminent carbon offsetting regimeSouth AfricaGIZ and the Government of South Africa2017–2018C4, in partnership with the Copperleaf Consortium, developed detailed greenhouse gas emission and sinks accounting guidelines. These guidelines were used for carbon offsetting and net emissions reporting in the South African Carbon Tax Regime. The project: i) detailed appropriate GHG accounting rules; and ii) developed monitoring, reporting and verification (MPV) guidelines. In doing so, the project assessed whether the management of grasslands and reduced/zero-till agricultural systems reduced carbon emissions.
Improving the climate resilience of irrigation water-supply infrastructure to mudflows and floods in southern KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanUNDP2017–2018C4 lead the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project supported the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic to enhance the resilience of vulnerable water supply infrastructure in southern Kyrgyzstan to the impacts of mudflows and floods. The project invested in building the climate resilience of local communities by: i) enhancing the capacity of the Government of Kyrgyzstan to model and forecast mudflows; ii) climate proofing water supply infrastructure; and iii) improving policies, regulations and building codes for the climate-resilient water supply infrastructure.
Towards a policy on indigenous bush encroachment in South AfricaSouth AfricaGIZ2017–2018C4 co-developed a report with Anchor Environmental for South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) on the threat of indigenous bush encroachment in the savannas and grasslands of South Africa. The report consisted of: i) a review of the nature, extent and causes of bush encroachment ii) an assessment of the impacts of bush encroachment on ecosystem services; iii) a review of the potential remedies for the problem; iv) a review of policy and legislation relevant to the management of bush encroachment; and v) an evaluation of different policy scenarios. The findings from the report were summarised in a policy brief.
Enhancing climate resilience in the Greater Mekong sub-region through Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the context of South-South cooperationThailand and VietnamUNEP2017–2018C4 co-developed a Concept Note and developed the Funding Proposal for this AF-funded project. The project will build the resilience of vulnerable communities in the Great Mekong Basin. This will be achieved through three complementary outcomes: i) climate change adaptation interventions, particularly EbA, implemented by vulnerable communities in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) to manage climate change impacts, particularly droughts and floods; ii) enhanced knowledge and awareness of adaptation interventions, including EbA, to shared climate change impacts in different ecosystems to promote regional cooperation, planning and implementation of adaptation in the GMS; and iii) strengthened regional cooperation on climate change adaptation, particularly in response to floods and droughts, in the GMS.
Enhanced climate resilience of rural communities in central and north Benin through the implementation of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in forest and agricultural landscapesBeninUNEP2015–2018C4 lead the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal to be submitted to the GCF through the Simplified Approval Process (SAP). The project will support the Government of Benin to improve the livelihoods and food security of local communities by developing natural resource-based income opportunities and buffering communities against the effects of climate change. This will be achieved by: i) restoring land for multi-use energy and livelihood benefits; ii) improving and securing agricultural livelihoods in the face of climate change; and iii) strengthening the technical and institutional capacity of the government and communities for implementing EbA and climate-resilient agriculture.
Building the resilience of Kune-Vaini Lagoon through Ecosystem-based AdaptationAlbaniaUNEP2015–2018C4 is providing technical advisory services to this GCF/LDCF-funded project. The work includes budget revisions, workplan development, preparing Terms of References, overseeing M&E and writing of summary reports. The project will increase the resilience of the Kune-Vaini Lagoon system and surrounding communities using EbA interventions such as dune stabilisation and riparian forest restoration.
Natural Soil Infrastructure and Ecosystem Services AssessmentsDepartment of Environmental Affairs (DEA) of the Government of South AfricaSouth Africa2014–2018C4 undertook primary research, funded by the Government of South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs, investigating the relationship between soil properties and woody plant invasions – i.e. Invasive Alien Plants (IAPs) and bush encroachment – in the fynbos, grasslands and savanna biomes. In addition, C4 continues to be involved in a scientific technical advisory role to the ecological restoration projects within the Natural Resource Management Programme (NRMP) in thicket ecosystems. The objectives of the work are to: i) monitor and evaluate the effect of NRMP interventions on vegetation dynamics, soil erodibility, rates of soil erosion, soil water content and ecosystem carbon stocks; ii) to generate an income stream from verified carbon credits in subtropical thicket; and iii) build capacity of graduate students in the field of natural resource management and restoration ecology.
Enhancing capacity, knowledge and technology support to build climate resilience of vulnerable developing countriesSeychelles, Nepal, Mauritania, ChinaUNEP2014–2018C4 is providing technical advisory services for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The work includes budget revisions, workplan development, preparing Terms of References, overseeing M&E and writing summary reports. The project builds climate resilience using EbA in LDCs and Small Island Developing States of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa. It achieves this by increasing institutional capacity, mobilising knowledge and transferring appropriate technologies on climate change adaptation to Mauritania, Nepal and Seychelles. Best-practice EbA technologies are transferred from China to the pilot countries.
Addo Elephant National Park, Baviaanskloof Nature Reserve and Great Fish River Nature Reserve Restoration Project (ABFRP)South AfricaGovernment of South Africa2013–2018Anthony Mills has been involved in the ABFRP as a scientific advisor since the start of the project in 2003. C4 has contributed to the project by developing the project documentation, restoration protocols and Standard Operating Procedures, and continues to be involved in a technical advisory capacity. This project is the first validated Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) project under the 2007.1 standard in Africa to restore indigenous forest/thicket in a semi-desert, and only the 19th Agriculture, Forestry and Land-Use project to be validated worldwide. At least 5,300 ha of degraded thicket is being restored by planting cuttings of the indigenous thicket tree Portulacaria afra (Spekboom).
Implementing adaptation technologies in fragile ecosystems of Djibouti’s central plainsDjiboutiUNEP2013–2018C4 developed a Project Document and provides technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. Through the project, knowledge on – and technical capacity for – adaptation to climate change was increased to enable government staff to implement, maintain and upscale best practices for adaptation in Djibouti. The project interventions will decrease the vulnerability of local communities to floods and droughts through the construction of hard infrastructure, implementation of ecosystem-based adaptation interventions and promotion of climate-resilient livelihoods.
Improved Cooking Stove programme (ICS) – reports on the Non-Renewable Biomass fraction (fNRB)Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Nigeria, Madagascar, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Laos, CambodiaC-Quest Capital, ICECAP and CO2balance2010–2018C4 developed a series of technical reports entitled ‘Improved Cooking Stove programme: Calculating the Non-Renewable Biomass fraction (fNRB)’. These reports contributed to the development of small-scale, Clean Development Mechanism projects. These projects are reducing fuelwood consumption in 19 African and Asian countries by distributing improved cooking stoves to households which use fuelwood as a primary energy source.
GCF Readiness Programme in GuineaGuineaUNDP2017C4 provided technical advisory services for UNDP with the task of assisting the Government of Guinea to establish a National Designated Authority (NDA) for GCF. This work included guiding the related processes (letter of non-objection and coordination mechanism) and identifying national entities which could be accredited. The tasks consisted of engaging with stakeholders within governmental and non-governmental institutions to: i) analyse existing institutional arrangements in Guinea and suggest an institutional framework which could serve as interface between the government and the GCF; ii) identify capacity building needs for the NDA and develop a training plan; iii) facilitate workshops to inform relevant stakeholders about the accreditation process for the GCF; and iv) help identify national entities which could be accredited and their needs in terms of capacity building.
Strengthening Iraq’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processIraqUNDP2017C4 co-developed a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal for this GCF-funded project which will strengthen Iraq’s technical, institutional and financial capacity to enhance national climate resilience. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Iraq; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Iraq and UNEP.
Nsumbu National Park Climate Change StrategyZambiaIUCN2017C4 developed a Climate Change Strategy for Nsumbu National Park in Zambia. The strategy was developed under the IUCN ESARO’s Integrated Planning to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Strategic Plan and Increase Ecosystem Resilience to Climate Change Project. This project is implemented in Tanzania, Zambia, Vietnam and Colombia, and is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). The Integrated Planning Project will increase capacity to optimise land use planning which supports biodiversity conservation and climate change adaptation objectives, including the effective engagement of protected area systems.
Building the resilience of urban populations in Laos with ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)LaosUNEP2017C4 developed a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project will be implemented in six cities in Laos. The Laotian cities of Vientiane, Luang Prabang, Paksan, Savannakhet, Thakek and Pakse are rapidly growing urban areas directly adjacent to the Mekong River. All six cities are impacted by river flooding and flash floods, both of which will be exacerbated by climate change. The outputs of this project will: i) improve policy and planning for urban EbA and flood management; ii) build local institutional capacity for managing urban EbA; iii) build the resilience of vulnerable urban areas to both river and flash floods using urban EbA; and iv) facilitate knowledge-sharing around urban EbA for flood management.
Strengthening Cameroon’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processCameroonUNEP2017C4 co-developed a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal for this GCF-funded project which will strengthen Cameroon’s technical, institutional and financial capacity to enhance national climate resilience. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Cameroon; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Cameroon and UNEP.
FAO Intégrer la résilience climatique à la production agricole et pastorale pour
la sécurité alimentaire dans les zones rurales vulnérables à travers l’approche champ ecole des producteurs
Burkina FasoFAO2017C4 provided technical advisory services for this FAO-funded project. Tasks included: i) reviewing, analysing and identifying best practices for climate-resilient agropastoralism; ii) discussing and validating the identified practices with national and regional stakeholders at regional and national workshops; and iii) facilitating the dissemination of best practices for climate-resilient agropastoralism through the publication of reports and radio shows targeting the local communities.
Strengthening Mauritania’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processMauritaniaUNEP2017C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Mauritania which was approved by the GCF. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Mauritania; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Mauritania and UNEP.
Climate change adaptation in the arid regions of Adrar, Inchiri and Trarza, MauritaniaMauritaniaUNEP2017C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will strengthen the adaptive capacity of rural communities and government in the arid Mauritanian wilayas of Adrar, Inchiri and Trarza by introducing ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA). The project will focus on improving the management of water and other natural resources in these climate- vulnerable target communities.
Building the climate resilience of small and medium agricultural enterprises in KazakhstanKazakhstanUNDP2017C4 developed a Concept Note and Pre-Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. C4 previously developed a Project Idea Note which provided the groundwork for this proposal. The project will enhance the resilience of vulnerable communities to climate change and extreme events. It will enable small and medium agricultural enterprises (SMEs) to access finance for climate-resilient adaptation practices and technologies through three interrelated outputs: i) enhanced capacity of agricultural SMEs to implement adaptation practices and technologies; ii) strengthened technical capacity of KazAgro – a national agricultural financing institution – to finance adaptation practices and technologies; and iii) adaptation practices and technologies implemented through the disbursement of loans to agricultural SMEs.
Improvement of early warning systems to reduce impacts of climate change and capacity building to integrate climate change into development plansLesothoUNEP2012–2017C4 undertook a Baseline Study and provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project developed best practice guidelines for climate-resilient agriculture, and mainstreaming climate change interventions into relevant sectoral policies. The project had the objectives of: i) building the capacity for monitoring and predicting climate change effects; ii) delivering early warning for extreme events; and iii) improving local and national planning for adaptation to climate change throughout the country.
Promoting sustainable forest management and improving livelihoods through integrated land-use planning and forest landscape restorationSri LankaFAO2016C4 developed a Project Document for this project to be funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project will promote sustainable forest management and enhance rural livelihoods through forest landscape restoration, improved agroforestry practices and integrated land-use planning in Sri Lanka. It will achieve this by: i) enhancing the contributions of trees-outside-forests to food security, income, and biological diversity; ii) building national capacity for forest landscape restoration; iii) establishing incentive mechanisms to enhance the contribution of forest ecosystem services to local livelihoods; iv) reducing pressures on natural forests through integrated land-use planning at landscape level; and v) enhancing the national knowledge base for sustainable land management.
Promoting the adoption and financing of climate-resilient agricultural practices and technologies by smallholder farmers in ZambiaZambiaUNDP2016C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will: i) strengthen the technical capacity of national and local institutions in the agricultural sector; ii) increase the resilience of smallholder farmers to the effects of climate change using climate-resilient land management techniques; and iii) support investments in climate change adaptation within Zambia’s agricultural sector.
Adapting Afghan communities to climate-induced disaster risksAfghanistanUNDP2016C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project which was approved. This project was designed to: i) increase the institutional and technical capacity in national and provincial government agencies to collect, analyse and disseminate climate information and assess weather-induced disaster risks; ii) design and implement community-based early warning systems; iii) support the adoption of climate-resilient livelihoods in vulnerable communities; and iv) promote the inclusion of climate change considerations in national and provincial development plans and policies.
Solar4Health: using solar energy to improve health services and storage of medicines in ZambiaZambiaUNDP2016C4 developed a Project Document for this UNDP initiative in Zambia. The objective of the Solar4Health project is to provide solar energy to health facilities in Zambia, thereby improving health care and the storage of medicines. In addition, the project will transfer relevant knowledge and technologies to government and the private sector, thereby contributing towards an enabling environment for further investment in solar technology.
Mano River Ecosystem Conservation and International Water Resources Management (IWRM) ProjectRegional (Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast)BRL engineering (BRLi)2016C4 provided technical advisory services for the development of the Project Document for this GEF Trust Fund project. This project was approved for funding and will: i) promote the integrated management of forest ecosystems and improved natural resources management practices; and ii) facilitate high-level cooperation in the management of transboundary river basins.
Adapting to climate change in the Lake Victoria BasinBurundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and UgandaUNEP2015–2016C4 developed the Concept Note and a Project Proposal which was approved for funding by the GCF. This project will increase climate resilience in the Lake Victoria Basin at both a regional and local level by implementing regional and community-based climate change adaptation interventions.
Building resilience of communities living around the Northern Pistachio Belt and Eastern Forest Complex of Afghanistan through an Ecosystem-based Adaptation approachAfghanistanUNEP2015–2016C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project which was approved. The project was designed to build the capacity of local communities living around the Northern Pistachio Belt and Eastern Forest Complex of Afghanistan to the effects of climate change by improving watershed functioning by using Ecosystem-based Adaptation approaches. This was achieved by: i) building government’s capacity to address climate risks by improving watershed functioning; ii) improving the climate resilience of local communities through restoration of degraded forests; and iii) developing the knowledge base on forest restoration as an EbA approach in Afghanistan.
Mapping of potential Spekboom restoration areas in the Calitzdorp DomainSouth AfricaCasidra, Gouritz Cluster Biosphere Reserve and LandCare2015–2016C4 undertook a field-mapping exercise to identify potential areas for Spekboom (Portulacaria afra) restoration in the Calitzdorp area of the Klein Karoo. This assessment: i) determined the historical and current extent of Spekboom vegetation types within the area; ii) mapped restoration potential – i.e. currently degraded areas which were historically Spekboom-rich vegetation types – at a scale of 1:15,000 within the domain; iii) gauged the willingness of land owners and land users to participate in restoration activities; and iv) developed restoration protocols and standard operating procedures to guide restoration activities within the Calitzdorp planning domain.
Flood hazard and climate risk management to secure lives and assets in MaliRepublic of MaliUNDP2015–2016C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funding project which was approved. The project was designed to : i) increase availability of and access to climate information including the generation and dissemination of climate forecast information and flood early warnings; ii) increase public awareness on climate-related hazards; iii) promote mainstreaming of disaster risk management into policies, development plans and budgetary processes; and iv) implement flood risk reduction interventions to improve rainwater management in flood-prone communities.
Adapting coastal zone management to climate change considering ecosystem and livelihoodsMadagascarMinistry of Environment, Ecology, Sea and Forests of the Government of Madagascar2015–2016C4 developed a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will reduce the vulnerability of Madagascar’s coastal zone to climate variability and change, through institutional capacity building, coastal protection and integration of climate change into policy and planning. The Baseline Study included field-based assessments of land use and vegetation cover, as well as assessments of coastal infrastructure such as sea walls and groynes. Surveys were designed to collect social data at national, sub-national and local levels to measure vulnerability to climate change. The results of the assessments and surveys will be used to revise the original monitoring and evaluation plans, including indicators and targets.
Expanding the on-going support to Least Developed Countries (LDCs) with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation Plans LDCsUNEP and UNDP2015–2016C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project was approved for funding. This project will: i) expand the technical support provided by the ongoing NAP Global Support Programme; ii) further develop tools and methodologies which support important steps of the NAP process in LDCs; iii) organise an additional six targeted training workshops on key elements of the NAP process; and iv) further facilitate the exchange of knowledge and lessons learned – through South-South and North-South cooperation – to enhance the capacity for advancing the NAP process within LDCs.
Strengthening the capacity of Sao Tomé’s government to advance the National Adaptation Planning processSao Tomé and PrincipeUNEP2015–2016C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will enhance the capacity of the Government of Sao Tomé to advance the National Adaptation Planning process. The interventions are likely to include: i) capacity building of the technical staff; ii) revision of the relevant national and sectoral policies, plans and strategies, iii) the establishment of a Long-Term Research Programme for the evaluation of all adaptation interventions to be implemented in Sao Tomé; and vi) the establishment of a monitoring and reviewing system for the NAP process.
Building the capacity of the Government of Vanuatu to advance the National Adaptation Planning processVanuatuUNEP2015–2016C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project promoted: i) government agencies to undertake medium to long-term adaptation planning; ii) strengthening the capacity of government agencies to undertake climate risk, vulnerability and impact assessments; and iii) operationalising a financing mechanism for sustainable funding of adaptation interventions in the medium to long term local communities to access financing for coastal adaptation interventions.
Coastal protection for vulnerable island communities in TuvaluTuvaluUNEP2015–2016C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project contributed to: i) strengthening the capacity of government agencies to plan and implement coastal adaptation interventions; ii) strengthening the capacity of local communities to access financing for coastal adaptation interventions; and iii) reducing vulnerability to climate-induced natural disasters through implementation of a mix of hard and soft coastal adaptation interventions.
Climate change adaptation in the lowland ecosystems of EthiopiaEthiopiaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will: i) strengthen the technical capacity for implementing a diversified approach to climate change adaptation; ii) improve climate risk management practice in smallholder farmers by introducing climate information and decision-making tools; and iii) promote the adoption of climate change adaptation practices. In addition to supporting climate change adaptation, the project will promote sustainable economic growth in communities living in lowland ecosystems.
Market Assessment: revenue-generating opportunities through tailored weather information productsBenin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Liberia, Malawi, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and ZambiaUNDP2015C4 undertook a continental-scale market assessment for the GEF/UNDP-funded project on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA). The objective was to assess the potential for developing tailored weather information products for revenue generation with a focus on 11 countries within the CIRDA programme. The assessment detailed the Readiness of the national meteorological and hydrological services (NMHSs) in the CIRDA countries to pursue commercialisation of weather and climate services. Furthermore, the assessment identified potential pathways for such commercialisation and made recommendations for building the capacity of NMHSs to generate revenue by developing weather and climate information services/products.
Preparation of South Sudan's National Adaptation Programme of Action in accordance to the Operational Guidelines for Expedited FundingSouth SudanUNEP2015C4 developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) for South Sudan. The NAPA outlines priorities for South Sudan to: i) increase capacities to adapt to climate change, thereby ensuring an enabling environment for the implementation of the UNFCCC; ii) provide direct channels to communicate information on urgent and immediate needs for adaptation; and iii) facilitate capacity building for the preparation of national communications and addressing urgent and immediate adaptation needs.
Mainstreaming climate risk considerations in food security and IWRM in Tsilima Plain and upper catchment areasEritreaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project which was approved. The project will: i) strengthen the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstream climate risk considerations into national policies and strategies; and iii) increase the resilience of the local communities to the effects of climate change by using climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions.
Community-based, sustainable and integrated natural resource management in Sub-Zoba Nakfa, Northern Red Sea RegionEritreaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project is: i) strengthening the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstreaming sustainable land management, forestry and biodiversity conservation into land-use planning and agricultural production practices; and iii) increasing the resilience of the local communities to the effects of climate change through climate- smart ecosystem rehabilitation and sustainable natural resource use and management interventions.
Adaptation to coastal erosion in vulnerable areasSenegalCentre for Ecological Monitoring2015C4 undertook the Terminal Evaluation for a project funded by the AF. The project objectives were to address the priority needs for adaptation to climate change as identified in the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) including the effects of sea level rise. The implementation sites of the project are Saly, Rufisque and Joal. The interventions of the project included the construction/rehabilitation of seawalls, anti-salt dikes and fish docks. Additionally, the project implemented interventions to improve communities’ livelihoods by: i) training; ii) providing equipment for fish processing; and iii) increasing the productivity of agricultural land. The development of appropriate regulations to support adaptation to climate change in coastal areas was undertaken. The terminal evaluation included field-based assessments of the efficiency and sustainability of hard infrastructure and other activities implemented by the project. The results of the projects were compared with the initial objectives and targets defined at inception and mid-term. The study also included designing surveys which were undertaken to measure the projected benefits and those realised. The results of the assessments and surveys were used to produce lessons learned and improve the implementation of future projects by the Government of Senegal and the AF.
Securing multiple ecosystem benefits through SLM in the productive but degraded landscapes of South AfricaSouth AfricaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF-funded project. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstreamed sustainable land management practices into planning and financial frameworks; and iii) reduced land degradation and improved land productivity by using climate-smart land/ecosystem rehabilitation interventions. These interventions have been implemented in the Karoo, Eastern Cape and the Olifants landscapes.
Promoting climate-resilient, community-based regeneration of indigenous forests in Zambia’s Central ProvinceZambiaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project: i) strengthened capacity for planning and implementation of climate-resilient forestry practices; ii) protected forest resources by implementing fire management practice; and iii) reduced pressure on forest resources through the introduction of efficient charcoal kilns and the creation of alternative energy sources.
Advancing the National Adaptation Planning process in LaosLaosUNEP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project increased the institutional and technical capacity in Laos to integrate climate change into policies, development plans and strategies at national and local levels. This was achieved by: i) strengthening the capacity to advance the National Adaptation Plans (NAP) process at a national level and across 18 provinces of Laos; ii) strengthening the system for developing, updating and sharing climate information; iii) mainstreaming NAP priorities into medium- and long- term development in the country; and iv) strengthening the capacity to monitor and review the NAP process.
Up-scaling solar energy applications for productive use in rural communitiesYemenUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project implemented solar energy technologies in Taiz, Lahaj and Aden. These technologies have increased the availability of energy in the country, thereby promoting security of livelihoods, food and water.
Increasing institutional and technical capacity for climate-resilient development in Djibouti in the Gobaad plains and Tadjourah cityDjiboutiUNEP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project increased the adaptive capacity of local communities in the Gobaad plains and Tadjourah City. The project interventions included: i) increasing technical and institutional capacity to integrate climate change into development planning at national, regional and local levels; ii) promoting scientific research and access to information on climate change adaptation in Djibouti; and iii) implementing adaptation technologies including hard infrastructure and ecosystem-based adaptation in the Gobaad plains and Tadjourah City.
Integrated Natural Resource Management in YemenYemenUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project promoted natural resource management by integrating biodiversity protection strategies and plans into sustainable ecosystem management practices. This was achieved by strengthening institutional capacity, enhancing coordination between agencies and upscaling conservation agriculture.
Assisting non-LDC developing countries with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation PlansAll non-LDCsUNEP and UNDP2014–2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The project built technical and institutional capacity in non-LDC developing countries to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- to long-term planning processes. The strengthened capacity promoted: i) the inclusion of adaptation and mitigation priorities across a range of sectors in non-LDC developing countries; and ii) policy-making based on the most up-to-duration information available.
Reducing vulnerability from climate change in the foothills, lowlands and the lower Senqu River BasinLesothoUNDP2014–2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstreamed climate risk considerations into national policies and strategies; and iii) increased the resilience of the local communities to the effects of climate change by using climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions. These interventions were implemented in Lesotho’s Foothills, Lowlands and the Lower Senqu River Basin.
Building the resilience of local communities in Zambia through the introduction of Ecosystem-based Adaptation into priority ecosystems, including wetlands and forestsZambiaUNEP2014–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change. This increased resilience was achieved by: i) enhancing the institutional capacity of national and local government; ii) revising policies and strategies to mainstream climate risk considerations; iii) demonstrating EbA interventions; and iv) integrating EbA into development planning. These EbA interventions focused on wetland and forest ecosystems in the Bangweulu Wetlands and surrounding areas.
Addressing urgent coastal adaptation needs and capacity gaps in AngolaAngolaUNEP and UNDP2014–2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project had the objective of enhancing institutional and community-level capacity to adapt to climate change along the coast of Angola, which contributed to: i) enhancing the national early warning system; ii) restoring coastal ecosystems and demonstrating adaptation interventions to local communities; and iii) enhancing institutional coordination for proactive adaptation in Angola.
Enhanced Management and Enforcement of Ethiopia's Protected Areas EstateEthiopiaUNDP2014–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project: i) improved the capacity for strategic decision-making on biodiversity conservation; ii) demonstrated the adoption of a landscape approach to biodiversity conservation; and iii) strengthened national and local capacity for enforcement of protected areas including anti-poaching interventions. The project supported the strengthening of legal and regulatory frameworks pertaining to biodiversity conservation.
Reducing the climate-change vulnerability of local communities in Burundi using EbA in degraded watershedsBurundiUNEP2014–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project has increased the adaptive capacity of local communities in Burundi to the effects of climate change. This was achieved by: i) increasing the institutional and technical capacity of national and local governments to plan and implement EbA; ii) restoring degraded watersheds using on-the-ground EbA interventions; and iii) undertaking research on EbA in the country.
Community-based sustainable land and forest management in AfghanistanAfghanistanFAO2014–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project: i) enhanced capacity of national and sub-national government institutions for SLM/SFM planning; ii) enhanced capacities of local communities in 6 provinces for developing and implementing community-based SLM/SFM plans; iii) improved management of 30,000 ha of forests to enhance biodiversity conservation and sequester carbon; iv) implemented climate-resilient SLM practices across 200,000 ha of rangelands; and v) strengthened the knowledge base to inform planning and implementation of SLM and SFM.
Niger Delta Climate Resilience InitiativeNigeriaPrivate sector – CarbonPlus Capital 2014–2015C4 undertook a Pre-Feasibility Assessment and developed a Project Identification Note for this REDD+ project. The project focussed on directing private sector investment to the restoration and conservation of mangroves and swamp forests in the country to generate carbon credits. Restoration interventions were complemented by alternative livelihood strategies to produce certified commodities which increase household income and/or food security.
Building climate resilience through innovative financing mechanisms for climate change adaptationAntigua and BarbudaUNEP2013–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The project focussed on innovative financing mechanisms for implementing EbA interventions. These mechanisms were used to strengthen resilience in vulnerable communities in Antigua and Barbuda. The project built the capacity of relevant institutions and communities to plan and implement the financing mechanisms and EbA interventions.
Building climate resilience of urban systems through ecosystem-based adaptation in Latin America and the CaribbeanEl Salvador, Jamaica and MexicoUNEP2013–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project increased the climate resilience of vulnerable communities living in three medium-sized cities across Latin American and Caribbean. This was achieved by: i) mainstreaming EbA into urban development planning; ii) implementing on-the-ground urban EbA interventions; and iii) increasing knowledge and awareness of urban EbA throughout the region.
Ecosystem-based approaches to Adaptation (EbA) in the drought-prone Barind Tract and Haor "wetland" areaBangladeshUNEP2013–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project: i) strengthened the technical and institutional capacity of local and national government to plan, implement and upscale EbA; ii) promoted the mainstreaming of climate risks and EbA into national policies and strategies; and iii) increased the capacity of local communities to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change through the implementation of EbA, support interventions for EbA and additional livelihoods.
Development of an improved and innovative delivery system for climate-resilient livelihoods in MauritaniaMauritaniaUNEP2013–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project contributed to: i) coordinating a national response to climate change; ii) promoting drought-resilient livelihoods in collaboration with local communities’ associations for the management of natural resources; iii) increasing knowledge on best practices for adaptation; and iv) raising awareness on adaptation opportunities.
Integrated water harvesting technologies to adapt to climate change-induced water shortageYemenUNDP2013–2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project contributed to: i) strengthening the technical capacity of government institutions; ii) rehabilitating and re-introducing traditional water harvesting methods as well as modern ones; and iii) improved decentralised water management to adapt to water shortages caused by climate change and groundwater depletion.
Building climate resilience of urban systems through ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in the Asia-Pacific regionBhutan, Cambodia, Laos, MyanmarUNEP2013–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project implemented urban EbA interventions in several cities in the Asia-Pacific region. These interventions included urban reforestation, urban agriculture and wetland restoration. Potential pilot cities included: Thimphu (Bhutan), Siem Reap and Kampot (Cambodia), Muang Xay and Paksan (Laos), and Mandalay and Naypyidaw (Myanmar).
Reducing GHG emissions through community forests and sustainable biomass energyAfghanistanFAO2012–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this project, approved by the GEF Trust Fund. The objective of the project is to reduce GHG emissions from two pilot areas in Afghanistan by promoting community forestry, removing barriers to sustainable biomass energy and laying the groundwork for future climate change mitigation projects in Afghanistan.
Adapting community forestry landscapes and associated community livelihoods to a changing climate, in particular an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather evensMyanmarUNEP2012–2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change by using EbA (implemented under the Community Forestry Instruction); iii) strengthened EWS for preparedness, early warning and response to protect Community Forestry landscapes and associated local community livelihoods from extreme weather events; and iv) revised policies and strategies which promote EbA in forests.
Building climate resilience to reduce vulnerability in wadis and coastal areasYemenUNDP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project reduced vulnerability to climate change by increasing community-level resilience in degraded wadis and coastal areas.
Building capacity for LDCs to participate effectively in intergovernmental climate change processesLDCsUNEP and UNDP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form and Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project strengthened institutional and technical capacities in least developed countries. This strengthened capacity promoted more effective participation in intergovernmental climate change negotiations and coordination of climate change efforts.
Building the resilience of Kune-Vaini Lagoon through ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)AlbaniaUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The project increased the resilience of the Kune-Vaini Lagoon system and communities living nearby it using EbA interventions such as dune stabilisation and riparian forest restoration.
Developing core capacity to address adaptation to climate change in productive coastal zones of Tanzania (LDCF) & Implementation of concrete adaptation measures to reduce vulnerability of livelihoods and economy of coastal communities in Tanzania (AF)TanzaniaTanzanian Vice-President’s Office2014C4 undertook a combined Baseline Study for these two complementary projects funded by the AF and GEF/LDCF, respectively. Both projects enhanced the adaptive capacity of local government and communities living in coastal zones to adapt to sea-level rise and erratic rainfall. Both projects included restoration of coastal infrastructure and ecosystems. The Baseline Study included field-based assessments of land use and vegetation cover, as well as assessments of coastal infrastructure such as sea walls, groynes and dikes. The study also included conducting surveys among local communities to measure climate change awareness. The results of the assessments and surveys were used to revise the original monitoring and evaluation plans, including project baselines, indicators and targets.
Enhancing climate change resilience of vulnerable communities living in Mozambique’s coastal zonesMozambiqueUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project i) strengthened the institutional and technical capacity of municipal and district authorities to plan and implement EbA interventions in urban and peri-urban areas; ii) implemented on-the-ground EbA interventions; and iii) shared best practice knowledge and increased public awareness on EbA interventions.
Feasibility of sustainable livestock production in the Eastern Cape, South Africa as part of the Sustainable Land and Water ProgrammeSouth AfricaIDH (Instituut voor Duurzame Handel)2014C4 developed a Feasibility Study on the upscaling of two models for sustainable livestock management in two water catchments in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. These models: i) improved livestock production; ii) improved market access for communal farmers; iii) improved livelihoods for communal farmers; and iv) rehabilitated degraded grasslands.
Building the capacity of Rwanda’s government to advance the National Adaptation Planning processRwandaUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which supported the implementation of the NAP process in Rwanda. The project included: i) capacity building; ii) fundraising; iii) monitoring and reporting on Rwanda’s experience regarding medium- and long-term adaptation; and iv) sharing knowledge on the NAP process nationally and internationally. The implementation of medium- and long-term interventions for adaptation to climate change – such as ecosystem-based adaptation interventions – in the country was also promoted by the project.
Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate-resilient development in the Kathmandu Valley, NepalNepalUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project increased the climate resilience of vulnerable communities living in the Kathmandu Valley. The project: i) mainstreamed EbA into development planning; ii) enhanced knowledge and awareness of local communities living in the Kathmandu Valley on EbA; and iii) strengthened the capacity of local communities living in the Kathmandu Valley to implement EbA interventions which promote water conservation, soil stability and livelihood diversification.
Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Great Mekong sub-regionChina, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand (Greater Mekong River Basin)UNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The project increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change. This was achieved by increasing the institutional capacity of the national and local governments throughout the GMRB, implementing pilot EbA interventions and integrating EbA into region-wide planning.
Reducing the climate change vulnerability of local communities in Uganda through EbA in forest and wetland ecosystemsUgandaUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project increased the resilience of local communities in Uganda living around forests and wetlands to climate change by using an ecosystem-based adaptation approach. Climate-resilient restoration of degraded forests and wetlands took place in selected project sites. These restoration interventions were complemented by the development of alternative livelihood strategies in communities living adjacent to the project sites.
Strengthening community resilience to climate-induced natural disasters in the Dili to Ainaro Road Development CorridorTimor-LesteUNDP2013–2014C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project strengthened local disaster risk management institutions and invested in risk reduction interventions within the Dili to Ainaro Development Corridor. These interventions protected important economic infrastructure from climate-induced natural hazards.
Catalysing ecosystem restoration for resilient natural capital and rural livelihoods in degraded forests and rangelands of NepalNepalUNEP2013–2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) revise policies and strategies which promote the restoration of forests and rangelands; and iii) increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change by restoring forest and rangeland ecosystems.
Western Cape ecosystems goods & services valuation and investment portfolio (WC Eco-Invest Project)South AfricaWestern Cape Government2013–2014C4, in partnership with Anchor Environmental, identified private sector business opportunities in restoration/conservation of ecosystems in the Western Cape. Appropriate financing mechanisms and public-sector activities were described for catalysing such investments. The project was part of the Western Cape Green Economy Strategy Framework, Green is Smart. This framework included Smart Ecosystems as one of its five focal areas. The Smart Ecosystems focal area will facilitate strategic investments in the protection, restoration and management of ecosystems.
Economy-wide integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk
management/disaster risk reduction to reduce climate vulnerability of communities in Samoa
SamoaUNDP2013–2014C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The project used an economy-wide approach to climate change adaptation in Samoa to promote the efficient integration of adaptation and DRR/DRM into national development planning. This enhanced the resilience of local communities across Samoa to climate change and natural disasters.
Kuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve Thicket Restoration ProjectSouth AfricaKuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve2013–2014C4 developed this project and facilitated its validation under the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA). The project, which received CCBA Gold status, involves undertaking ecosystem restoration in the Kuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Degraded thicket ecosystems are being restored by planting cuttings of the indigenous thicket tree Portulacaria afra, commonly known as Spekboom. The restoration process sequesters large quantities of atmospheric carbon into soils and plants. Sales from carbon credits will fund the restoration process.
Catalysing ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) for resilient ecosystems and rural livelihoods in degraded forests, savannas and wetlands of RwandaRwandaUNEP2011–2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project reduced the vulnerability of rural communities to climate change by enhancing the capacity of national and local institutions to implement EbA activities. These activities had the objective of restoring degraded ecosystems and establishing climate-resilient ecosystems in the wetlands, forest, savannas and mountains of Rwanda.
Enhancing climate change resilience of rural communities living in protected areas of CambodiaCambodiaUNEP2011–2014C4 developed a Project Note and a Project Document, undertook a Baseline Study and provided technical advisory services for this AF-funded project. The project had the objective of enhancing the resilience of rural communities living in Protected Areas using the “eco-agriculture” concept by: i) restoring degraded tropical forests over thousands of hectares; and ii) practising intensive conservation agriculture in and around home gardens.
Building adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change in AfghanistanAfghanistanUNEP2011–2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. C4 also provided technical advisory services to this project. The project had the objective of increasing the climate resilience of rural populations and strengthening Afghanistan’s capacity to both plan for and respond to the short- and long-term effects of climate change. The project used global best practices in ecosystem management to sustain supplies of ecosystem goods and services despite climate change.
Implementing NAPA priority interventions to build resilience in the most vulnerable coastal zones in DjiboutiDjiboutiUNEP2010–2014C4 developed the Project Document, undertook a Baseline Study, and provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project had the objective of addressing the effects of climate change on coastal ecosystems and local communities by restoring mangroves. It also implemented climate-resilient agricultural systems in Obock-Khor Angar in the North and Altar-Damerjog in the South.
Additional financing to community-based agricultural and rural development programmeNigeriaIFAD2013C4 reviewed this project. The review focused on climate change adaptation and natural resource management interventions under the Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme, for this project funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
Ghana Rural Growth ProgrammeGhanaIFAD2013C4 developed the climate change adaptation interventions, under the Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme, for this project funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The project included designing and costing project interventions which built climate resilience within agriculture in rural areas. Project components included: i) climate change awareness; ii) infrastructure investment; iii) agro-ecological adaptation; and iv) policy dialogue and capacity building.
Pre-baseline feasibility assessment for a REDD+ project in Sierra LeoneSierre LeoneUK-based private sector client2013C4 undertook a Feasibility Assessment in support of a REDD+ project for a UK-based private sector client. This included extensive literature reviews, remote consultations with local stakeholders and assessment of satellite imagery to determine historical rates of deforestation and degradation.
Spier mob-grazing carbon auditSouth AfricaCredible Carbon2013C4 undertook an audit of greenhouse gas emissions on a privately-owned farm practising improved land management techniques. The audit was undertaken in support of the project documentation for an independent carbon credit certification scheme.
Assisting Least Developed Countries (LDCs) with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation PlansAll LDCsUNEP and UNDP2013C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project aimed to build capacity in all LDCs for integrating climate change adaptation into medium- to long- term planning processes. The strengthened capacity will promote: i) the inclusion of adaptation and mitigation priorities across a range of sectors (e.g. water, agriculture) in planning activities; and ii) policy-making based on the most up-to-date information available.
Strengthening climate information and early warning systems (EWSs) in Africa for climate-resilient development and adaptation to climate changeZambia, Liberia, Uganda, MalawiUNDP2012–2013C4 developed four Project Documents for these GEF/LDCF-funded projects. The project interventions included: i) enhancing the capacity of project countries to monitor and forecast climate and weather; ii) generating tailored climate information for specific sectors; and iii) disseminating early warnings for climate hazards specific to each country.
Development of integrated MRV systems for REDD+ in the SADC regionSADC countriesGIZ2012–2013C4 undertook a study on current capacity and needs for measurement, reporting and verification of deforestation and forest degradation across the SADC region. Extensive consultations with multiple stakeholders were held, including in-country consultations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.
Carbon stocks under different land-uses in renosterveldSouth AfricaTable Mountain Fund2011–2013C4 conducted scientific research to quantify carbon storage in plants and soils in renosterveld vegetation, a highly threatened indigenous vegetation type in the southern Cape, South Africa. The research included assessing the commercial viability of using carbon finance to restore renosterveld in cultivated lands to create conservation corridors between fragments of intact renosterveld.
Building a comprehensive national approach in RwandaRwandaUNEP and UNDP2012C4 undertook a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded project and African Adaption Programme project. This involved conducting vulnerability assessments of rural communities during a three-week mission to revise the original project indicators. Furthermore, a vulnerability index was developed to assist in monitoring and evaluating the indicators.
Reducing vulnerability to climate change by establishing early warning and disaster preparedness systems and support for integrated watershed management in flood prone areasRwandaUNEP and UNDP2012C4 undertook a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project aimed to strengthen national and local capacities to deliver functional early warning and disaster preparedness systems. The project objective was to reduce the vulnerability of the Gishwati ecosystems and its associated Nile-Congo crest watersheds to increased floods and droughts due to climate change.
National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to climate change for MyanmarMyanmarUNEP2012C4 developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The work entailed assessing climate vulnerability and developing appropriate adaptation interventions. Eight sectors were covered namely: i) early warning systems (EWS); ii) public health; iii) agriculture; iv) water resources; v) energy, transport and industry; vi) coastal zone; vii) forestry; and viii) biodiversity.
Strengthening management effectiveness and generating multiple environmental benefits within and around protected areas in ZambiaZambiaUNDP2011–2012C4 developed two Technical Reports for this GEF-funded project in Zambia, namely: i) one stocktaking report to assess feasibility of REDD+ in Game Management Areas around Kafue National Park; and ii) one stocktaking report to estimate potential GHG reductions through promotion of woodlots and efficient charcoal kilns in Game Management Areas around Zambian Protected Areas.
Understanding the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the development of a climate proofing strategy in the Limpopo River BasinMozambiqueGovernment of Mozambique2011–2012C4 developed a Project Document for this MDG Achievement Fund project. The project aimed to incorporate climate change into the MICOA development plans of local government authorities in the Limpopo River Basin. The project objectives were to build climate resilience and reduce the disaster risk of local communities. Downscaled climate models were used to generate 840 years of daily simulations, which were then run through hydrological and agricultural models. The results were combined with indicators of socio-economic vulnerability to identify ‘hotspots’ where climate-related hazards were most likely to affect local communities.
Africa Adaptation Programme21 countries across AfricaUNDP and the Government of Japan2008–2012C4 developed an African Adaptation Programme (AAP) Programme Document and provided in-country technical guidance and project management for the launch of the AAP in Ethiopia, Malawi, Kenya and Rwanda. This continent-wide initiative mainstreamed climate change adaptation into national programmes and processes through complementary regional, national, sub-national and local activities.
Arab Climate Resilience InitiativeAlgeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, YemenUNDP2011C4 developed a Project Document for this project. The project objective was to establish the foundations of a regional platform to provide support for climate change resilience in countries of the Arab region. Project activities included: i) enhancing institutional capacity to address the effects of climate change; ii) strengthening resilience to the negative effects of climate change and creating opportunities to enhance the production and use of sustainable energy; and iii) advocating for and creating public awareness in countries of the Arab region regarding climate change adaptation and mitigation.
Implementing NAPA priority interventions to strengthen the climate change early warning systems in The GambiaThe GambiaUNEP2011C4 undertook a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The study included designing surveys which were then conducted among local communities to develop a vulnerability index. This index was used to revise the original monitoring and evaluation plan, including project baselines, indicators and targets. The project is reducing climate change vulnerability and enhancing adaptive capacity by strengthening early warning and information sharing systems in The Gambia.
Building Turkey's resilience to climate change through ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)TurkeyUNEP2011C4 developed a Project Document for this project. The project objective was to increase the supply of ecosystem goods and services within the Anatolian steppes, Mediterranean forests, the Cukurova coastal zone and the south-eastern GAP region.
Early warning and advisory climate service and product: a diagnostic review and needs assessment for Sub-Saharan Africa – ZambiaZambiaBRLi2011C4 conducted a needs assessment and review of early warning systems (EWSs) against climate risks for this African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD)-funded project. The needs for EWSs and advisory services were identified within four themes: i) agriculture and food security; ii) water; iii) health; and iv) severe weather events. The findings and recommendations of the study were inputs into the ‘African Early Warning and Advisory Climate Services’ (AEWACS) project.
Technical feasibility assessment of the Territorial Approach to Climate Change (TACC) project for the Mbale region of UgandaUgandaUNDP2011C4 undertook a technical assessment prior to implementation of this project. The project focused on mitigation and adaptation in three districts in eastern Uganda. The technical feasibility of several activities was examined, including: i) support for the Forests Absorbing Carbon Emission (FACE) programme; ii) upland afforestation; iii) coffee agroforestry; iv) improved combustion stove distribution; v) a small grants scheme; and vi) rainwater harvesting.
Early warning and advisory climate services and products: a diagnostic review and needs assessment for Sub-Saharan Africa – South AfricaSouth AfricaBRLi2011C4 conducted a needs assessment and review of early warning systems (EWSs) against climate risks for this African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD)-funded project. The needs for EWSs and advisory services were identified within four themes: i) agriculture and food security; ii) water; iii) health; and iv) severe weather events. The findings and recommendations of the study were used to inform the ‘African Early Warning and Advisory Climate Services’ (AEWACS) project.
Tree planting in South African townshipsSouth AfricaFood & Trees for Africa2010–2011C4 developed a Project Documentation for this project, which was validated through the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) in 2011. This and the “Peri-urban bamboo planting around South African townships” project were the first urban greening projects in Africa to be validated by the VCS. The project generated carbon credits (Verified Emission Reductions, VERs) by planting trees in townships where communities did not have the financial resources available to do this.
Peri-urban bamboo planting around South African townshipsSouth AfricaFood & Trees for Africa2010–2011C4 developed the Project Documentation for the project, which was validated through the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) in 2011. This and the ‘Tree Planting in South African Townships’ project were the first urban greening projects in Africa to be validated by the VCS. The project involved establishing a bamboo plantation on the outskirts of selected townships. A community harvesting programme was designed, whereby mature bamboo culms were harvested annually after the third year.
Carbon credit earning potential for REDD+ activities in NG8 and the NG26 Wildlife Management Area, BotswanaBotswanaAfrican Carbon Exchange2008–2011C4 assessed the financial and ecological viability of a REDD+ project in northern Botswana. The project focused on whether greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions are obtainable from forest protection in the project areas. This included preparing a detailed Project Idea Note (PIN) and undertaking carbon stock assessments of the project areas.
Carbon credit earning potential for REDD+ activities in the Sichifulo and Lupande Game Management Area, ZambiaZambiaAfrican Carbon Exchange2008–2011C4 assessed the financial and ecological viability of REDD+ activities in Zambia. The project focused on whether greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions are obtainable from forest protection in the project areas. This included preparing a detailed Project Idea Note (PIN) and undertaking carbon stock assessments of the project areas.
Vulnerability assessment and adaptation programme for climate change within the coastal zone of Cambodia considering livelihood improvement and ecosystemsCambodiaUNEP2010C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project strengthened the climate-resilience of coastal communities by protecting and rehabilitating coastal ecosystems. The project interventions included restoring mangroves and enhancing the sustainable use of natural resources.
Adapting water resource management in the Comoros to expected climate changeComorosUNEP and UNDP2010C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The objective of the project was to improve water resource management – including increased water supply and improved water quality – to reduce the risk of climate change effects on lives and livelihoods. The project included reforestation activities to improve water basin management and prevent soil erosion.
Adapting national and transboundary water resource management in Swaziland to manage the expected impacts of climate changeSwazilandUNDP2010C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. An ecosystem-based approach was used to manage Swaziland’s water resources under expected climate change conditions. The project promoted national dialogue between multiple stakeholders from a range of sectors, primarily agriculture and water management.
Long-term planning for low emission, climate-resilient development in the Delta State, NigeriaNigeriaUNDP2010C4 developed a Project Document for this UNDP and Government of Nigeria project. The objective of the project was to build technical capacity within government and the private sector to implement appropriate mitigation and adaptation interventions. These interventions included: i) cross-sectoral studies on the nexus between environmental degradation and climate change impacts; ii) identification of communities in Delta State most vulnerable to climate change; and iii) identification of appropriate GHG mitigation and adaptation options.
UN collaborative programme on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countriesZambiaUNDP, UNEP and FAO2010C4 developed a Project Document for this UN-REDD project. The project prepared Zambian institutions and stakeholders for nationwide implementation of the REDD+ mechanism. The objectives of the project included: i) building an institutional and stakeholder capacity to implement REDD+; ii) developing policies for REDD+; iii) developing REDD+ benefit-sharing models; and iv) developing measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems for REDD+.
Implementing NAPA priority interventions to build resilience and adaptive capacity of the agriculture sector to climate change in NigerNigerUNDP2009C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. This project has increased the adaptive capacity of the agriculture and water sectors. The interventions increased agricultural productivity, food security and water availability.
Central Asian multi-country programme in climate risk managementKazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, UzbekistanUNDP2009C4 developed a Project Document for this Central Asian adaptation programme. The goals of the programme were to: i) promote adaptation to climate change and reduce climate-related disasters in each country; and ii) integrate climate risk management into each country’s main development policies and strategies.
Adaptation to the effects of drought and climate change in Agro-ecological Regions I and II in ZambiaZambiaUNDP2009C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project had a two-pronged approach: i) incorporate adaptation interventions into agricultural planning at national, district and community levels to promote increased investment in adaptation in the agricultural sector; and ii) assess the costs and benefits of the interventions.
Africa Adaptation ProgrammeCongo Brazzaville, Mauritius, Niger, SenegalUNDP and The Government of Japan2009C4 developed four Project Documents for the African Adaptation Programme (AAP). This continent-wide initiative mainstreamed climate change adaptation into national programmes and processes through complementary regional, national, sub-national and local activities.
Carbon stocks under different land-uses in Agulhas Plain Fynbos, Nuwejaars Special Management Area and Flower Valley TrustSouth AfricaFlower Valley Trust2009C4 conducted scientific research to assess the financial viability of using carbon finance to restore eroded peatlands and rehabilitate agricultural fields. Options assessed included using wood from alien invasive trees as mulch, compost and biochar. Ecosystem carbon stocks in fynbos, vineyards, pastures and invasive alien tree stands in the Agulhas Plain were also quantified. carbon sequestration benefits of conserving the indigenous vegetation was compared with other land-uses.
Enhancing the capacity of Turkey to adapt to climate changeTurkeyUNDP2007C4 developed a Project Document for this MDGF-funded project which focused on a multi-faceted approach to maintain agricultural productivity, ecosystem goods and services, and the natural resource base in the context of a warming and drying climate. The objective of the project was to develop capacity to manage climate change risks for rural and coastal development in Turkey. Four outcomes were developed: i) mainstreaming climate change adaptation into the national development framework; ii) building capacity in national and regional institutions; iii) piloting community-based adaptation projects in the Seyhan River Basin; and iv) integrating climate change adaptation into all UN agencies in Turkey.
Adaptation of the water sector to climate change in the SeychellesSeychellesUNDP2006C4 developed a Project Concept for UNDP. This project focused on building the resilience of the water sector to the anticipated effects of climate change. Interventions pertaining to water supply and management interventions were proposed. These interventions included: i) water conservation measures; ii) introduction of financial incentives or tariffs; iii) rainwater harvesting, legislation to improve water catchment functioning; iv) improved water storage capacity; v) water transfer mechanisms; and vi) capacity- building in water resource management.