The C4 EcoSolutions’ team publishes extensively in the scientific, peer-reviewed literature across a wide range of disciplines, including botany, carbon sequestration, climate change adaptation, conservation biology, ecology, restoration ecology, soil science, and zoology. Our publication record is presented below.

Mills, A.J., Spear, D., Ndhlovu, T., Knight, M.H., Pienke, D.M., Hofmeyr, S. & Cowling, R.M. 2014. Exceptional biomass of large herbivores in South African subtropical thicket. African Journal of Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/aje.12162.
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Mills, A.J. 2006. The role of salinity and sodicity in the dieback of Acacia xanthophloea in Ngorongoro Caldera, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology. 44:61-71.
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Mills, A., Fey, M., Kgope, B., Donaldson, J. & Bosenberg, J.D. 2011 Detecting the onset of rangeland degradation using soil respiration and boundary lines: preliminary findings from the Nama Karoo. African Journal of Range and Forage Science. 28: 8
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O'Connor, T.G., Uys, R.G. & Mills, A.J. 2004. Ecological effects of firebreaks in the montane grasslands of the southern Drakensberg, South Africa. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 21:1-10.
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Radloff, F.G.T., Mucina, L. & Snyman, D. 2014. The impact of native large herbivores and fire on the vegetation dynamics in the Cape renosterveld shrublands of South Africa: insights from a six-yr field experiment. Applied Vegetation Science 17:456
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Mills, A.J., Cowling, R.M., Fey, M.V., Kerley G.I.H., Donaldson J.S., Lechmere-Oertel, R.G., Sigwela, A.M., Skowno, A.L. & Rundel, P. 2005. Effects of goat pastoralism on ecosystem carbon storage in semiarid thicket, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Aus
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Mills, A.J. & Fey, M.V. 2005. Interactive response of herbivores, soils and vegetation to annual burning in a South African savanna. Austral Ecology 30:435-444.
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Mills, A.J., Fey, M.V., Grongroft, A., Petersen, A. & Medinski, T.V. 2006. Unravelling the effects of soil properties on water infiltration: segmented quantile regression on a large data set from arid southwest Africa. Australian Journal of Soil Re
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Milewski, A.V. & Mills, A.J. 2010. Does life consistently maximise energy intensity? Biological Reviews. 85:859-879.
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Mills, A.J., Rogers, K.H., Stalmans, M. & Witkowski, E.T.F. 2006. A framework for the scaled exploration of the determinants of savanna and grassland distribution: a challenge for the new generation of ecologists. Bioscience. 56:579-589.
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Kumamoto, M., & Mills, A.J. 2012. What African countries perceive to be adaptation priorities: results from 20 countries in the Africa Adaptation Programme. Climate and Development DOI:10.1080/17565529.2012.733676.
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Mills, A.J., Birch, S.C., Stanway, R., Huyser, O., Chisholm, R.A., Sirami, C. & Spear, D. 2013. Sequestering carbon and restoring renosterveld though fallowing: a practical conservation approach for the Overberg, Cape Floristic Region, South Africa
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Fey, M.V., O'Brien, R.D. & Mills, A.J. 2002. Rehabilitation of waste rock and overburden dumps. Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
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Stephenson, J., A. Mills, J. Eksteen, A. Milewski, & Myburgh J. 2010. Geochemistry of mineral licks at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 33:49-53.
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Snyman, D., Watts, W.S. & Allsopp, N. 2008. Responses of succulent Karoo rangeland vegetation to rest from grazing. In: Mucina, L. et al. (eds). Frontiers of Vegetation Science – An evolutionary angle. Keith Phillips Images, Somerset West.
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Mills, A.J., Milewski, A.V., Rogers, K.H., Witkowski, E.T.F. & Stalmans, M. 2013. Boundary of treeless grassland in relation to nutrient content of soils on the Highveld of South Africa Geoderma. 200-201: 165–171.
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Mills, A.J., Milewski, A.V., Sirami, C., Rogers, K.H., Witkowski, E.T.F., Stalmans, M. & Fey, M.V. 2012. Aerosol capture by small trees in savannas marginal to treeless grassland in South Africa. Geoderma. 189-190: 124-132.
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Mills, A.J. & Fey, M.V. 2004. Frequent fires intensify soil crusting: physicochemical feedback in the pedoderm of long-term burn experiments in South Africa. Geoderma 121:45-64
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Sako, A., Mills, A.J. & Roychoudhury, A.N. 2009. Rare earth and trace element geochemistry of termite mounds in central and northeastern Namibia: Mechanisms for micro-nutrient accumulation. Geoderma. 153:217-230.
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Fey, M.V., Mills, A.J. & Yaalon, D.H. 2006. The alternative meaning of pedoderm and its use for soil surface characterisation. Geoderma. 133:474-477.
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Mills, A.J. & Cowling, R.M. 2010. Below-ground carbon stocks in intact and transformed subtropical thicket landscapes in semi-arid South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments. 74: 93-100.
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Zedda, L., Gröngröft, A., Schultz, M., Petersen, A., Mills, A. & Rambold G. 2011. Distribution patterns of soil lichens across the principal biomes of southern Africa. Journal of Arid Environments. 75: 215-220.
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Fey, M.V., Francis, M.L., Prinsloo, H.P., Ellis, F., Mills, A.J., de Clercq, W.P., Sinjan, E. & Medinski, T.V. 2007. Soils of Namaqualand: compensations for aridity. Journal of Arid Environments 70:588-603.
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Fox, S.C., Mills, A.J. & Poch, R.M. 2009. Micromorphology of surface crusts in the Knersvlakte, South Africa. Journal of Mountain Science 6:189-196.
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Mills, A.J., Milewski, A., Fey, M.V., Groengroeft, A. & Peterson, A. 2009. Fungus culturing, nutrient mining and geophagy: a geochemical investigation of Macrotermes and Trinervitermes mounds in southern Africa. Journal of Zoology 278:24-35.
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Mills, A.J. & Milewski, A.V. 2007. Geophagy and micronutrient supplementation in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania, with particular reference to selenium, cobalt, and molybdenum. Journal of Zoology. 271:110-118.
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Mills, A.J., Milewski, A.V., Fey, Gröngröft, A., Petersen, M. & Sirami, C. 2013. Constraint on woody cover in relation to nutrient content of soils in western southern Africa. Oikos. 122: 136-148.
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Mills, A.J., Morkel, P., Amiyo, A., Runyoro, V., Borner, M. & Thirgood, S. 2006. Managing small populations in practice: black rhino in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. Oryx. 40:319-323.
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Mills A.J. 2003. Reciprocal relationships between vegetation structure and soil properties in selected biomes of South Africa. PhD thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch.
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Mills, A.J. 1996. The ecology of land degradation with special reference to the resilience of African semiarid rangelands to domestic livestock grazing pressure. MPhil thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
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Mills, A.J. 1995. Response of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) to irrigation with saline, sodic wastes and nitrogenous, manganiferous effluent. MSc thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.
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Fey, M., Milewski, A.V. & Mills, A. 2010. Animals in soil environments. – In: Fey, M. (ed.), Soils of South Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cape Town: 149-175.
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Jeltsch, F., Blaum, N., Classen, N., Eschenbach, A., Grohmann, C., Gröngröft, A., Joubert, D. F., Horn, A., Lohmann, D., Linsenmair, K. E., Lück-Vogel, M., Medinski, T. V., Meyfarth, S., Mills, A., Petersen, A., Popp, A., Poschlod, P., Reisch, C., Ross
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Gröngröft, A., Mager, D., Medinski, T., Mills, A., Petersen, A., Eschenbach, A. 2010: Evaluation of the soil degradation state along fence-line contrasts. – In: Schmiedel, U., Jürgens, N. [Eds.]: Biodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 2: Patterns and&
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Petersen, A., Gröngröft, A., Mills, A., Miehlich, G. 2010: Soils along the BIOTA transects. – In: Schmiedel, U., Jürgens, N. [Eds.]: Biodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 2: Patterns and processes at regional scale: pp. 84–92, Klaus Hess Publishers,
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Pröpper, M., Gröngröft, A., Falk, T., Eschenbach, A., Fox, T., Gessner, U., Hecht, J., Hinz, M. O., Huettich, C., Hurek, T., Kangombe, F. N., Keil, M., Kirk, M., Mapaure, C., Mills, A., Mukuya, R., Namwoonde, N. E., Overmann, J., Petersen, A., Reinhold
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Zedda, L., Gröngröft, A., Schultz, M., Petersen, A., Mills, A., Rambold, G. 2010: Patterns of soil lichen diversity along the BIOTA transects in relation to climate and soil features. – In: Schmiedel, U., Jürgens, N. [Eds.]: Biodiversity in southern Af
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Mills, A.J., Fey, M.V., Donaldson, J., Todd, S. & Theron, L. 2009. Soil infiltrability as a driver of plant cover and species richness in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa. Plant and Soil 320: 321-332 .
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Mills, A.J. & Fey, M.V. 2004. Transformation of thicket to savanna reduces soil quality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Plant and Soil 265:153-163.
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Kaseke, K. F., Mills, A.J., Esler, K., Henschel, J., Seely, M.K. & Brown, R. 2012. Spatial variation of 'non-rainfall' water input and the effect of mechanical soil crusts on input and evaporation. Pure and Applied Geophysics: 1–13. DOI:10.1007/s00
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Kaseke, K.F., Mills, A.J., Brown, R., Esler, K., Henschel, J. & Seely, M.K. 2011. A method for direct assessment of the “non rainfall" atmospheric water cycle: input and evaporation from the soil. Pure and Applied Geophysics. DOI:10.1007/s00024-011
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Kaseke, K.F., Mills, A.J., Henschel, J., Seely, M.K., Esler, K. & Brown, R. 2011. The effects of desert pavements (gravel mulch) on soil micro-hydrology. Pure and Applied Geophysics. DOI: 10.1007/s00024-011-0367-2.
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Mills AJ, Vyver M, Gordon I, Patwardhan A, Marais C, Blignaut J, Sigwela A & Kgope B. 2015. Prescribing Innovation within a Large-Scale Restoration Programme in Degraded Subtropical Thicket in South Africa. Forests 6:4328- 4348
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Mills AJ, Spear D, Ndhlovu T, Knight MH, Pienke DM, Hofmeyr S & Cowling RM. 2014. Biomass of large herbivores in South African subtropical thicket. African Journal of Ecology 52:577-580
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Mills AJ, & Cowling RM. 2014. How fast can carbon credits be generated through restoration of degraded subtropical thicket? Restoration Ecology 22:571-573
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Mills, A.J., & Cowling, R.M. How fast can carbon credits be generated through restoration of degraded subtropical thicket? Restoration Ecology. 22: 571-573.
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Mills, A.J., & Cowling, R.M. 2006. Rate of carbon sequestration at two thicket restoration sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Restoration Ecology. 14:38-49.
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Van der Vyfer M.L., Cowling R.M., Mills A.J. & Difford M. 2012. Spontaneous return of biodiversity in restored subtropical thicket: Portulacaria afra as an ecosystem engineer. Restoration Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12000.
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Mills, A.J., Turpie, J., Cowling, R.M., Marais, C., Kerley, G.I.H., Lechmere-Oertel, R.G., Sigwela, A.M. & Powell, M. 2007. Assessing costs, benefits and feasibility of subtropical thicket restoration in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. In Restoring
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Seymour, C.L., Mills, A.J., Milewski, A.V., Joseph, G.S., Cumming, D.H.M., Mahlangu, Z. 2013. Do the large termite mounds of Macrotermes concentrate micronutrients in addition to macronutrients in nutrient-poor African savannas? Soil Biology and Bioche
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Mills, A.J. & Fey, M.V. 2004. Effects of vegetation cover on the tendency of soil to crust in South Africa. Soil Use and Management 20:308-317.
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Mills, A.J. & Fey, M.V. 2004. A simple laboratory infiltration method for measuring the tendency of soils to crust. Soil Use and Management 20:8-12.
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Mills, A.J., Cowling, R.M., Steyn, D., Spekreijse, J. & Van den Broeck, D., Weel, S. & Boogerd, C. 2011. Portulacaria afra is constrained under extreme soil conditions in the Fish River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa. South African Journal
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Cowling R.M. & Mills A.J. 2011. A preliminary assessment of rain throughfall beneath Portulacaria afra canopy in subtropical thicket and its implications for soil carbon stocks. South African Journal of Botany. 77, 236-240.
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Sigwela, A., Cowling, R., Kerley, G. & Mills, A. 2009. The impact of browsing-induced degradation on the reproduction of subtropical thicket canopy shrubs and trees. South African Journal of Botany 75:262-267.
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Lechmere-Oertel, R.G., Kerley, G.I.H. Mills, A.J. & Cowling, R.M. 2008. Litter dynamics across browsing-induced fenceline contrasts in succulent thicket, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 74: 651–659.
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Turpie, J.K., O'Connor, T.G., Mills, A.J. and Robertson, H. 2007. The ecological and economic consequences of changing land use in the southern Drakensberg grasslands. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences. 10: 423-441.
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Mills, A.J., Birch, S.C., Stephenson, J.D. & Bailey, R.V. 2012. Carbon stocks in fynbos, pastures and vineyards on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: a preliminary assessment. South African Journal of Plant and Soil DOI:10.1080/02571862.2012.730636.
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Mills, A.J., O'Connor, T.G., Donaldson J.S., Fey, M.V., Skowno, A.L., Sigwela, A.M., Lechmere-Oertel, R.G. Bosenberg, J.D. 2005. Ecosystem carbon storage under different land uses in three semi-arid shrublands and a mesic grassland in South Africa. Sou
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Mills, A.J., Fey, M.V. & Johnson, C.E. 2005. Ionic strength as a measure of sulphate salinity stress: effects of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and manganese sulphate on kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) growth and ion uptake. South African Journa
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Mills, A.J. & Fey, M.V. 2004. Soil carbon and nitrogen in five contrasting biomes of South Africa. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 21:94-103.
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Medinksi, T.V., Mills, A.J. & Fey, M.V. 2009. Relationships between soil particle size fractions and infiltrability. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 26: 147-156.
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Medinksi, T.V., Mills, A.J. & Fey, M.V. 2009. Infiltrability in soils from south-western Africa: effects of texture, electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium percentage. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 26: 157-163.
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Mills, A.J. & Fey, M.V. 2003. Declining soil quality in South Africa: effects of land use on soil organic matter and surface crusting. South African Journal of Science 99:429-436.
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Mager, D M., Hui, C. & Mills, A.J. 2012 A first record of biological soil crusts in the Cape Floristic Region. South African Journal of Science. DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v108i7/8.1013.
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Milton, S.J., Dean, W.R.J. O'Connor, T.G. & Mills, A.J. 2007. Scaling up from site-based research to a national research and monitoring network: lessons from Tierberg Karoo Research Centre and other design considerations. South African Journal of S
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Reynolds. C. and Tye, N. (2015). 300 easy-to-see birds in southern Africa. Struik Nature. Cape Town.
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Brown, R., Mills, A. & Jack, C. 2008. Non-rainfall moisture inputs in the Knersvlakte: Methodology and preliminary findings. Water SA 34:275-278.
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