Projects

Countries we’ve worked with:

Over the past decade, C4 has worked on over 220 projects in 105 countries across Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean. Our clients include the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), German Development Cooperation (GIZ), United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), CARICOM DF, Global Water Partnership (GWP), Conservation International (CI), private firms, and governments of a wide range of developing countries.

DurationCountryClientTitleContentCategoriesWeblinkhf:tax:project_category
2009ZambiaUNDPAdaptation to the effects of drought and climate change in Agro-ecological Regions I and II in Zambia

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in December 2009. The project: i) incorporated adaptation interventions into agricultural planning at national, district and community levels to promote increased investment in adaptation in the agricultural sector; and ii) assessed the costs and benefits of the interventions.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/3689gef
2009NigerUNDPImplementing NAPA priority interventions to build resilience and adaptive capacity of the agriculture sector to climate change in Niger

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2009. This project has increased the adaptive capacity of Nigers agricultural and water sectors by increasing agricultural productivity, food security and water availability.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/3916gef
2010EswatiniUNDPAdapting national and transboundary water resource management in Swaziland to manage the expected impacts of climate change

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2012. An EbA approach was used to manage Eswatinis water resources under expected climate change conditions. The project promoted national dialogue between multiple stakeholders from a range of sectors, primarily agriculture and water management.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/4255gef
2010ComorosUNEP and UNDPAdapting water resource management in the Comoros to increase capacity to cope with climate change

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2010. The objective of the project was to improve water resource management including increased water supply and improved water quality to reduce the risk of climate change effects on lives and livelihoods. Accordingly, the project included reforestation activities to improve water basin management and prevent soil erosion.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/3857gef
2010CambodiaUNEPVulnerability assessment and adaptation programme for climate change within the coastal zone of Cambodia considering livelihood improvement and ecosystems

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in February 2011. The project strengthened the climate resilience of Cambodias coastal communities by protecting and rehabilitating coastal ecosystemsby restoring mangroves and enhancing the sustainable use of natural resources.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/3890gef
2011The GambiaUNEPImplementing NAPA priority interventions to strengthen the climate change early warning systems in The Gambia

C4 conducted a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The study included designing surveys which were then conducted among local communities to develop a vulnerability index. This index was used to revise the original monitoring and evaluation plan, including project baselines, indicators and targets. Accordingly, the project is reducing climate change vulnerability and enhancing adaptive capacity by strengthening early warning and information sharing systems in The Gambia.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5071gef
2012MyanmarUNEPNational Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to climate change for Myanmar

C4 developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project assessed Myanmars climate vulnerability and developed appropriate adaptation interventions across 8 sectors, namely: i) early warning systems; ii) public health; iii) agriculture; iv) water resources; v) energy, transport and industry; vi) coastal zones; vii) forestry; and viii) biodiversity.

GEFunfccc.int/resource/docs/napa/mmr01.pdfgef
2012RwandaUNEP and UNDPReducing vulnerability to climate change by establishing early warning and disaster preparedness systems and support for integrated watershed management in flood prone areas

C4 conducted a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project aimed to strengthen national and local capacities to deliver functional early warning and disaster preparedness systems. The objective was to reduce the vulnerability of the Gishwati ecosystems and associated Nile-Congo crest watersheds to increased flooding and droughts resulting from climate change.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/3838gef
2012RwandaUNEP and UNDPBuilding a comprehensive national approach in Rwanda

C4 conducted a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded and African Adaption Programme project. This involved conducting vulnerability assessments of rural communities during a three-week mission to revise the original project indicators. Additionally, a vulnerability index was developed to assist in monitoring and evaluating the indicators.

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2012-2013Zambia, Liberia, Uganda and MalawiUNDPStrengthening climate information and early warning systems (EWSs) in Africa for climate-resilient development and adaptation to climate change

C4 developed four Project Documents for these GEF/LDCF-funded projects, approved for implementation in September 2013. The project interventions included: i) enhancing the capacity of project countries to monitor and forecast climate and weather; ii) generating tailored climate information for specific sectors; and iii) disseminating early warnings for climate hazards specific to each country.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/4993gef
2013All LDCsUNEP and UNDPAssisting Least Developed Countries (LDCs) with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation Plans (NAPS)

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in May 2013. The project aimed to build capacity in all LDCs for integrating climate change adaptation into medium- to long-term planning processes. The strengthened capacity will promote: i) the inclusion of adaptation and mitigation priorities across a range of sectors (for example, water and agriculture) in planning activities; and ii) policy-making based on the most up-to-date information available.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5320gef
2010-2014DjiboutiUNEPImplementing NAPA priority interventions to build resilience in the most vulnerable coastal zones in Djibouti

C4 developed the Project Document, conducted a Baseline Study and provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in May 2010. Its primary objective was to address the effects of climate change on coastal ecosystems and local communities by restoring mangroves. In the addition, the project implemented climate-resilient agricultural systems in Obock-Khor Angar in the north and Altar-Damerjog in the south.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/3408gef
2011-2014RwandaUNEPCatalysing ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) for resilient ecosystems and rural livelihoods in degraded forests, savannas and wetlands of Rwanda

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in November 2015. The project reduced the vulnerability of rural communities to climate change by enhancing the capacity of national and local institutions to implement EbA activities. These activities had the objective of restoring degraded ecosystems and establishing climate-resilient ecosystems in the wetlands, forest, savannas and mountains of Rwanda.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5194gef
2011-2014AfghanistanUNEPBuilding adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change in Afghanistan

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document, as well as provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in October 2012. The project had the objective of increasing the climate resilience of rural populations and strengthening Afghanistans capacity to both plan for and respond to the short- and long-term effects of climate change. Using global best practices in ecosystem management, the project sustained supplies of ecosystem goods and services despite the impacts of climate change.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/4227gef
2012-2014Seychelles, Nepal, Mauritania and ChinaUNEPEnhancing capacity, knowledge and technology support to build climate resilience of vulnerable developing countries

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in January 2013. Baseline studies were also conducted by C4 for the project in Mauritania, Nepal and the Seychelles. The project built climate resilience using EbA in LDCs and SIDS of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa by increasing institutional capacity, mobilising knowledge and transferring appropriate technologies on climate change adaptation to Mauritania, Nepal and Seychelles. Tasks completed by C4 included: i) facilitating the project launch workshop; ii) developing work plans for each pilot country; iii) coordinating EbA and Regional Network workshops; and iv) developing Terms of References for project consultants.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/4934gef
2013-2014SamoaUNDPEconomy-wide integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk management/disaster risk reduction to reduce climate vulnerability of communities in Samoa

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in October 2014. The project used an economy-wide approach to climate change adaptation in Samoa to promote the efficient integration of adaptation and DRR/DRM into national development planning. This has enhanced the resilience of local communities across Samoa to climate change and natural disasters.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5417gef
2013-2014NepalUNEPCatalysing ecosystem restoration for resilient natural capital and rural livelihoods in degraded forests and rangelands of Nepal

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2015. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) revised policies and strategies promoting the restoration of forests and rangelands; and iii) increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change by restoring forest and rangeland ecosystems.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5203gef
2013-2014Timor-LesteUNDPStrengthening community resilience to climate-induced natural disasters in the Dili to Ainaro Road Development Corridor, Timor-Leste

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2014. The project strengthened local disaster risk management institutions and invested in risk reduction interventions within the Dili to Ainaro Development Corridor. These interventions have protected important economic infrastructure from climate-induced natural hazards.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5056gef
2014UgandaUNEPReducing the climate change vulnerability of local communities in Uganda through EbA in forest and wetland ecosystems

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, with its concept approved February 2017. The project increased the resilience of local communities in Uganda surrounding forests and wetlands to climate change by using an ecosystem-based adaptation approach. Accordingly, climate-resilient restoration of degraded forests and wetlands occurred in selected project sites and were complemented by the development of alternative livelihood strategies in communities living adjacent to the project sites.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/8035gef
2014China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand Greater Mekong River Basin (GMRB)UNEPEcosystem-based Adaptation in the Greater Mekong sub-region

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The project increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change. This was achieved by increasing the institutional capacity of the national and local governments throughout the GMRB, implementing pilot EbA interventions and integrating EbA into region-wide planning.

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2014NepalUNEPEcosystem-based Adaptation for climate-resilient development in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, its concept approved in March 2017. The project increased the climate resilience of vulnerable communities living in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The project: i) mainstreamed EbA into development planning; ii) enhanced knowledge and awareness of local communities living in the Kathmandu Valley on EbA; and iii) strengthened the capacity of local communities living in the Kathmandu Valley to implement EbA interventions which promote water conservation, soil stability and livelihood diversification.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/8009gef
2014RwandaUNEPBuilding the capacity of Rwanda’s government to advance the National Adaptation Planning process

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved in November 2016, which supported the implementation of the NAP process in Rwanda. The project focused on: i) capacity building; ii) fundraising; iii) monitoring and reporting on Rwandas experience regarding medium- and long-term adaptation; iv) sharing knowledge on the NAP process nationally and globally; and v) promoting the implementation of medium- and long-term interventions for adaptation to climate change such as EbA interventions in the country.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/6986gef
2014MozambiqueUNEPEnhancing climate change resilience of vulnerable communities living in Mozambique’s coastal zones

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in January 2019. The project: i) strengthened the institutional and technical capacity of municipal and district authorities to plan and implement EbA interventions in urban and peri-urban areas; ii) implemented on-the-ground EbA interventions; and iii) shared best practice knowledge and increased public awareness on EbA interventions.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/6983gef
2014TanzaniaTanzanian Vice-Presidents OfficeDeveloping core capacity to address adaptation to climate change in productive coastal zones of Tanzania (LDCF); and Implementation of concrete adaptation measures to reduce vulnerability of livelihoods and economy of coastal communities in Tanzania (AF)

C4 undertook a combined Baseline Study for these two complementary projects funded by the GEF/LDCF and AF, respectively. Both projects enhanced the adaptive capacity of local government and communities living in coastal zones to adapt to sea level rise and erratic rainfall. and included restoration of coastal infrastructure and ecosystems. The Baseline Study included conducting: i) field-based assessments of land use and vegetation cover; ii) assessments of coastal infrastructure such as sea walls, groynes and dikes; and iii) surveys among local communities to measure climate change awareness. The results of the assessments and surveys were used to revise the original monitoring and evaluation plans, including project baselines, indicators and targets.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/4141gef
2014AlbaniaUNEPBuilding the resilience of Kune-Vaini Lagoon through ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2015. The project increased the resilience of the Kune-Vaini Lagoon system and communities living near the system, using EbA interventions such as dune stabilisation and riparian forest restoration.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5386gef
2014LDCsUNEP and UNDPBuilding capacity for LDCs to participate effectively in intergovernmental climate change processes

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2014. The project strengthened institutional and technical capacities in least developed countries (LDCs). This strengthened capacity promoted more effective participation in intergovernmental climate change negotiations and coordination of climate change efforts.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5615gef
2014YemenUNDPBuilding climate resilience to reduce vulnerability in wadis and coastal areas

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project reduced vulnerability to climate change by increasing community-level resilience in degraded wadis and coastal areas.

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2012-2015MyanmarUNEPAdapting community forestry landscapes and associated community livelihoods to a changing climate, in particular an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in December 2016. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change by using EbA (implemented under the Community Forestry Instruction); iii) strengthened EWS for preparedness, early warning and response to protect Community Forestry landscapes and associated local community livelihoods from extreme weather events; and iv) revised policies and strategies that promote EbA in forests.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5567gef
2012-2015AfghanistanFAOReducing GHG emissions through community forests and sustainable biomass energy

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund, approved for implementation in October 2015. The project reduced GHG emissions from two pilot areas in Afghanistan by promoting community forestry, removing barriers to sustainable biomass energy and laying the groundwork for future climate change mitigation projects in the country.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5610gef
2013-2015Bhutan, Cambodia, Laos and MyanmarUNEPBuilding climate resilience of urban systems through ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in the Asia-Pacific region

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in January 2017. The project implemented urban EbA interventions in several cities in the Asia-Pacific region. These interventions included urban reforestation, urban agriculture and wetland restoration. Potential pilot cities included: Thimphu (Bhutan), Siem Reap and Kampot (Cambodia), Muang Xay and Paksan (Laos), and Mandalay and Naypyidaw (Myanmar).

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5815gef
2013-2015YemenUNDPIntegrated water harvesting technologies to adapt to climate change-induced water shortage

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, with its concept approved March 2013. The project contributed to: i) strengthening the technical capacity of government institutions; ii) rehabilitating and re-introducing traditional water harvesting methods as well as modern ones; and iii) improved decentralised water management to adapt to water shortages caused by climate change and groundwater depletion.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5211gef
2013-2015MauritaniaUNEPDevelopment of an improved and innovative delivery system for climate-resilient livelihoods in Mauritania

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in January 2017. The project contributed to: i) coordinating a national response to climate change; ii) promoting drought-resilient livelihoods in collaboration with local communities associations for the management of natural resources; iii) increasing knowledge on best practices for adaptation; and iv) raising awareness on adaptation opportunities.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5580gef
2013-2015BangladeshUNEPEcosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in the drought-prone Barind Tract and Haor wetland area

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in December 2016. The project: i) strengthened the technical and institutional capacity of local and national government to plan, implement and upscale EbA; ii) promoted the mainstreaming of climate risks and EbA into national policies and strategies; and iii) increased the capacity of local communities to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change through the implementation of EbA, supporting interventions for EbA and additional livelihoods.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5456gef
2013-2015El Salvador, Jamaica and MexicoUNEPBuilding climate resilience of urban systems through ecosystem-based adaptation in Latin America and the Caribbean

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in October 2016. The project increased the climate resilience of vulnerable communities in three cities (El Salvador, Jamaica and Mexico) across Latin America and the Caribbean. This was achieved by: i) mainstreaming EbA into urban development planning; ii) implementing on-the-ground urban EbA interventions; and iii) increasing knowledge and awareness of urban EbA throughout the region.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5681gef
2013-2015Antigua and BarbudaUNEPBuilding climate resilience through innovative financing mechanisms for climate change adaptation

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in July 2016. The project focused on innovative financing mechanisms for implementing EbA interventions to strengthen resilience in vulnerable communities in Antigua and Barbuda. In addition, the project built the capacity of relevant institutions and communities to plan and implement these financing mechanisms and EbA interventions.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5523gef
2014-2015AfghanistanFAOCommunity-based sustainable land and forest management in Afghanistan

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund, approved in April 2016. The project: i) enhanced capacity of national and sub-national government institutions for Sustainable Landscape Management/Sustainable Forest Management (SLM/SFM) planning; ii) enhanced capacities of local communities in six provinces for developing and implementing community-based SLM/SFM plans; iii) improved management of 30,000 ha of forests to enhance biodiversity conservation and sequester carbon; iv) implemented climate-resilient SLM practices across 200,000 ha of rangelands; and v) strengthened the knowledge base to inform planning and implementation of SLM and SFM in Afghanistan.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/9285gef
2014-2015BurundiUNEPReducing the climate-change vulnerability of local communities in Burundi using EbA in degraded watersheds

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project has increased the adaptive capacity of local communities in Burundi to the effects of climate change by: i) increasing the institutional and technical capacity of national and local governments to plan and implement EbA; ii) restoring degraded watersheds using on-the-ground EbA interventions; and iii) undertaking research on EbA in the country.

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2014-2015EthiopiaUNDPEnhanced Management and Enforcement of Ethiopia’s Protected Areas Estate

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund, approved in June 2015. The project: i) improved the capacity for strategic decision-making on biodiversity conservation; ii) demonstrated the adoption of a landscape approach to biodiversity conservation; and iii) strengthened national and local capacity for enforcement of protected areas including anti-poaching interventions; and iv) supported the strengthening of legal and regulatory frameworks pertaining to the conservation of biodiversity.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/9157gef
2014-2015AngolaUNEP and UNDPAddressing urgent coastal adaptation needs and capacity gaps in Angola

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in April 2016. The project enhanced institutional- and community-level capacity to adapt to climate change along the coast of Angola, which contributed to: i) enhancing the national early warning system; ii) restoring coastal ecosystems and demonstrating adaptation interventions to local communities; and iii) enhancing institutional coordination for proactive adaptation in Angola.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5230gef
2014-2015ZambiaUNEPBuilding the resilience of local communities in Zambia through the introduction of Ecosystem-based Adaptation into priority ecosystems, including wetlands and forests

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, with its concept approved in October 2017. The project increased the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change by: i) enhancing the institutional capacity of national and local government; ii) revising policies and strategies to mainstream climate risk considerations; iii) demonstrating EbA interventions; and iv) integrating EbA into development planning. These EbA interventions focused on wetland and forest ecosystems in Zambias Bangweulu Wetlands and surrounding areas.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/8034gef
2014-2015LesothoUNDPReducing vulnerability from climate change in the foothills, lowlands and the lower Senqu River Basin

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2015. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstreamed climate risk considerations into national policies and strategies; and iii) increased the resilience of the local communities to the effects of climate change by using climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions. These interventions were implemented in Lesothos Foothills, Lowlands and the Lower Senqu River Basin.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5075gef
2014-2015All non-LDCsUNEP and UNDPAssisting non-LDC developing countries with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation Plans

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2015. The project built technical and institutional capacity in non-LDC developing countries to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- to long-term planning processes. The strengthened capacity promoted: i) the inclusion of adaptation and mitigation priorities across a range of sectors in non-LDC developing countries; and ii) policy-making based on the most up-to-date information available.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5683gef
2015YemenUNDPIntegrated Natural Resource Management in Yemen

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project promoted natural resource management by integrating biodiversity protection strategies and plans into sustainable ecosystem management practices by strengthening institutional capacity, enhancing coordination between agencies and upscaling conservation agriculture.

GEFgef
2015DjiboutiUNEPIncreasing institutional and technical capacity for climate-resilient development in Djibouti in the Gobaad plains and Tadjourah city

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project increased the adaptive capacity of local communities in the Gobaad plains and Tadjourah City in Djibouti by: i) increasing technical and institutional capacity to integrate climate change into development planning at national, regional and local levels; ii) promoting scientific research and access to information on climate change adaptation in Djibouti; and iii) implementing adaptation technologies including hard infrastructure and EbA in Djiboutis Gobaad plains and Tadjourah City.

GEFgef
2015YemenUNDPUp-scaling solar energy applications for productive use in rural communities

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project implemented solar energy technologies in Taiz, Lahaj and Aden. These technologies have increased the availability of energy in the country, thereby promoting security of livelihoods, food and water.

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2015LaosUNEPAdvancing the National Adaptation Planning process in Laos

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, with its concept approved in January 2018. The project increased the institutional and technical capacity in Laos to integrate climate change into policies, development plans and strategies at national and local levels. This was achieved by: i) strengthening the capacity to advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process at a national level and across 18 provinces of Laos; ii) strengthening the system for developing, updating and sharing climate information; iii) mainstreaming NAP priorities into medium- and long-term development in the country; and iv) strengthening the capacity to monitor and review the NAP process in Laos.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/8022gef
2015ZambiaUNDPPromoting climate-resilient, community-based regeneration of indigenous forests in Zambia’s Central Province

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in May 2015. The project: i) strengthened capacity for planning and implementation of climate-resilient forestry practices; ii) protected forest resources by implementing fire management practices; and iii) reduced pressure on forest resources by introducing efficient charcoal kilns and creating alternative energy sources in Zambia.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5435gef
2015South AfricaUNDPSecuring multiple ecosystem benefits through SLM in the productive but degraded landscapes of South Africa

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF-funded project, which was approved for implementation in June 2015. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstreamed sustainable land management practices into planning and financial frameworks; and iii) reduced land degradation and improved land productivity by using climate-smart land/ecosystem rehabilitation interventions. These interventions have been implemented in the Karoo, Eastern Cape and the Olifants landscapes.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5327gef
2015EritreaUNDPCommunity-based, sustainable and integrated natural resource management in Sub-Zoba Nakfa, Northern Red Sea Region

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, with the concept approved in October 2016. The project objectives are to: i) strengthening the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstreaming sustainable land management, forestry and biodiversity conservation into land-use planning and agricultural production practices; and iii) increasing the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change through climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and sustainable natural resource use and management interventions.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/9266gef
2015EritreaUNDPMainstreaming climate risk considerations in food security and IWRM in Tsilima Plain and upper catchment areas

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which was approved in August 2016. The project objectives are to: i) strengthen the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstream climate risk considerations into national policies and strategies; and iii) increase the resilience of the local communities to the effects of climate change by using climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/6923gef
2015South SudanUNEPPreparation of South Sudan’s National Adaptation Programme of Action in accordance to the Operational Guidelines for Expedited Funding

C4 developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) for South Sudan. The NAPA outlined priorities for South Sudan to: i) increase capacity to adapt to climate change, ensuring an enabling environment for the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); ii) provide direct channels to communicate information on urgent and immediate needs for adaptation; and iii) facilitate capacity building for the preparation of national communications and addressing urgent and immediate adaptation needs.

GEFpostconflict.unep.ch/publications/South%20Sudan/SouthSudan_NAPA_Nov2016.pdfgef
2015Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Liberia, Malawi, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and ZambiaUNDPMarket Assessment: revenue-generating opportunities through tailored weather information products

C4 completed a continental-scale market assessment for the GEF/UNDP-funded project on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA). The project objective was to assess the potential for developing tailored weather information products for revenue generation, with a focus on 11 countries within the CIRDA programme. The assessment detailed the readiness of the national meteorological and hydrological services (NMHSs) in the CIRDA countries to pursue commercialisation of weather and climate services. Moreover, the assessment identified potential pathways for commercialisation and made recommendations for building the capacity of NMHSs to generate revenue by developing weather and climate information services/products.

GEFwww.adaptation-undp.org/resources/knowledge-products/climate-and-weather-services-market-assessment-revenue-generatinggef
2015EthiopiaUNDPClimate change adaptation in the lowland ecosystems of Ethiopia

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, with the concept approved in February 2018. The project objective was to: i) strengthen the technical capacity for implementing a diversified approach to climate change adaptation; ii) improve climate risk management practices of smallholder farmers by introducing climate information and decision-making tools; and iii) promote the adoption of climate change adaptation practices. In addition to supporting climate change adaptation, the project will promote sustainable economic growth in communities living in lowland ecosystems.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/9303gef
2015-2016TuvaluUNEPCoastal protection for vulnerable island communities in Tuvalu

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project contributed to: i) strengthening the capacity of government agencies to plan and implement coastal adaptation interventions; ii) strengthening the capacity of local communities to access financing for coastal adaptation interventions; and iii) reducing vulnerability to climate-induced natural disasters through the implementation of coastal adaptation interventions.

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2015-2016VanuatuUNEPBuilding the capacity of the Government of Vanuatu to advance the National Adaptation Planning process

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project promoted: i) government agencies to undertake medium to long-term adaptation planning; ii) strengthening the capacity of government agencies to undertake climate risk, vulnerability and impact assessments; and iii) operationalising a financing mechanism for sustainable funding of adaptation interventions in the medium to long term for local communities to access financing for coastal adaptation interventions.

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2015-2016Sao Tome and PrincipeUNEPStrengthening the capacity of Sao Tomes government to advance the National Adaptation Planning process

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will enhance the capacity of the Government of Sao Tome to advance the National Adaptation Planning process. The project interventions included: i) building capacity of the technical staff; ii) revising the relevant national and sectoral policies, plans and strategies; iii) establishing a long-term research programme for the evaluation of all adaptation interventions to be implemented in Sao Tome; and iv) establishing a monitoring and reviewing system for the NAP process.

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2015-2016LDCsUNEP and UNDPExpanding the on-going support to Least Developed Countries (LDCs) with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation Plans

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which was approved for funding in May 2016. This project was designed to: i) expand the technical support provided by the ongoing NAP Global Support Programme; ii) further develop tools and methodologies that support important steps of the NAP process in LDCs; iii) organise an additional six targeted training workshops on key elements of the NAP process; and iv) further facilitate the exchange of knowledge and lessons learned through South-South and North-South cooperation to enhance the capacity for advancing the NAP process within LDCs.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5868gef
2015-2016Republic of MaliUNDPFlood hazard and climate risk management to secure lives and assets in Mali

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funding project, approved in May 2016. The project was designed to: i) increase the availability of and access to climate information, including the generation and dissemination of climate forecast information and flood early warnings; ii) increase public awareness of climate-related hazards; iii) promote mainstreaming of disaster risk management into policies, development plans and budgetary processes; and iv) implement flood risk reduction interventions to improve rainwater management in flood-prone communities.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5855gef
2015-2016AfghanistanUNEPBuilding resilience of communities living around the Northern Pistachio Belt and Eastern Forest Complex of Afghanistan through an Ecosystem-based Adaptation approach

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which was approved in November 2016. The project was designed to increase the resilience of local communities living around the Northern Pistachio Belt and Eastern Forest Complex of Afghanistan to the effects of climate change by improving watershed functioning through EbA approaches. This was achieved by: i) building the governments capacity to address climate risks by improving watershed functioning; ii) improving the resilience of local communities through the restoration of degraded forests; and iii) developing the knowledge base on forest restoration as an EbA approach in Afghanistan.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5664gef
2016Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Ivory CoastBRL engineering (BRLi)Mano River Ecosystem Conservation and International Water Resources Management (IWRM) Project

C4 provided technical advisory services for the development of the Project Document for this GEF Trust Fund project. This project was approved for funding with the objective of: i) promoting the integrated management of forest ecosystems and improved natural resources management practices; and ii) facilitating high-level cooperation in the management of transboundary river basins.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/4953gef
2016AfghanistanUNDPAdapting Afghan communities to climate-induced disaster risks

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which was approved in August 2017. This project was designed to: i) increase the institutional and technical capacity in national and provincial government agencies to collect, analyse and disseminate climate information and assess weather-induced disaster risks; ii) design and implement community-based early warning systems; iii) support the adoption of climate-resilient livelihoods in vulnerable communities; and iv) promote the inclusion of climate change considerations in national and provincial development plans and policies.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/6914gef
2016ZambiaUNDPPromoting the adoption and financing of climate-resilient agricultural practices and technologies by smallholder farmers in Zambia

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. Project objectives include:: i) strengthening the technical capacity of national and local institutions in the agricultural sector; ii) increasing the resilience of smallholder farmers to the effects of climate change using climate-resilient land management techniques; and iii) supporting investments in climate change adaptation within Zambias agricultural sector.

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2016Sri LankaFAOPromoting sustainable forest management and improving livelihoods through integrated land-use planning and forest landscape restoration

C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF-funded project. The project objective is to promote sustainable forest management and enhance rural livelihoods through forest landscape restoration, improved agroforestry practices and integrated land-use planning in Sri Lanka. Project activities include: i) enhancing the contributions of trees-outside-forests to food security, income and biological diversity; ii) building national capacity for forest landscape restoration; iii) establishing incentive mechanisms to enhance the contribution of forest ecosystem services to local livelihoods; iv) reducing pressures on natural forests through integrated land-use planning at a landscape level; and v) enhancing the national knowledge base for sustainable land management.

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2012-2017LesothoUNEPImprovement of early warning systems to reduce impacts of climate change and capacity building to integrate climate change into development plans

C4 conducted a Baseline Study and provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project developed best-practice guidelines for climate-resilient agriculture and mainstreaming climate change interventions into relevant sectoral policies. Objectives included: i) building the capacity for monitoring and predicting climate change impacts; ii) delivering early warning for extreme events; and iii) improving local and national planning for adaptation to climate change throughout the country.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/3841gef
2017MauritaniaUNEPClimate change adaptation in the arid regions of Adrar, Inchiri and Trarza, Mauritania

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The concept was approved in December 2018. The project strengthened the adaptive capacity of rural communities and government in the arid Mauritanian wilayas of Adrar, Inchiri and Trarza by introducing EbA by improving the management of water and other natural resources in these climate-vulnerable target communities.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/10103gef
2012-2018Zambia, Liberia, Uganda and MalawiUNDPClimate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA)

C4 developed four Project Documents for this regional GEF/LDCF-funded programme, approved for implementation in September 2013. The project interventions included: i) enhancing the capacity of project countries to monitor and forecast climate and weather; ii) generating tailored climate information for specific sectors; and iii) disseminating early warnings for climate hazards specific to each country.

Anthony Mills also provided technical advisory services for CIRDA on private sector engagement, weather index-based insurance and climate information platforms to ensure climate information packages reach the intended users.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/4993gef
2013-2018DjiboutiUNEPImplementing adaptation technologies in fragile ecosystems of Djibouti’s central plains

C4 developed a Project Document and provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2014. Through the project, knowledge on and technical capacity for adaptation to climate change was increased to enable government staff to implement, maintain and upscale best practices for adaptation in Djibouti. The project decreased the vulnerability of local communities to floods and droughts by constructing hard infrastructure, implementing EbA interventions and promoting climate-resilient livelihoods.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5021gef
2017-2018RwandaUNEPStrengthening Rwandas capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process

C4 co-developed a Readiness and Preparatory Support Project Document for this GEF-funded project, approved for implementation in January 2019, that will increase Rwandas capacity to advance its National Adaptation Plan process. The project objective is to assist the Government of Rwanda in implementing the NAP process by strengthening its: i) technical and institutional capacity for medium- and long-term adaptation planning; ii) technical capacity to mobilise funding for climate change adaptation; and iii) scientific capacity to monitor, evaluate, and generate knowledge on adaptation interventions. This strengthening will be achieved through three components, namely: i) technical and institutional capacity for the NAP process in Rwanda; ii) advancing climate-resilient technologies and practices; and iii) monitoring, reviewing and knowledge-sharing to learn from the NAP process in Rwanda.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/6986gef
2018South SudanUNEPStrengthening the capacity of government and communities in South Sudan to adapt to climate change

C4 led the development of a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved in January 2020. The project aims to increase the resilience of vulnerable communities in two states in South Sudan to the observed and predicted impacts of climate change. Project activities include:: i) increasing the capacity of the government to implement climate change adaptation interventions; ii) upgrading the national meteorological network and support the production of short-range forecasts; iii) demonstrating the benefits of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) for buffering against climate change impacts and increasing the provision of ecosystem goods and services; iv) improving access to water for agriculture and livestock; v) fostering sustainable, climate-resilient production of crops, fodder and fuelwood to reduce pressures on natural resources; and vi) producing and disseminating knowledge on climate change adaptation to inform evidence-based decision-making in relevant sectors.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/9723gef
2018Global (non-LDCs)UNEPAssisting non-LDC developing countries with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation Plans

C4 conducted a Mid-term Review for this GEF-funded project. Tasks included: i) reviewing relevant project documents, including Project Implementation Reviews, Half-Yearly Progress Reports, Project Document, Results Framework and Indicators; ii) conducting interviews with relevant project partners and beneficiaries to assess strengths and weaknesses in the project to date; iii) preparing an MTR report, which included a critical assessment and evaluation of the project design, progress towards results, implementation arrangements and sustainability; and vi) formulating actionable recommendations to facilitate progress towards end-of-project targets.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5683gef
2018Global (Least Developed Countries, LDCs)UNEPBuilding capacity for LDCs to participate effectively in intergovernmental climate change processes

C4 conducted a Mid-term Review for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. Tasks included: i) reviewing relevant project documents, including Project Implementation Reviews, Half-Yearly Progress Reports, Project Document, Result Framework and indicators; ii) conducting interviews with relevant project partners and beneficiaries to assess strengths and weaknesses in the project to date; iii) preparing an MTR report, which included a critical analysis and evaluation of the project design, progress towards results, implementation arrangements and sustainability; and vi) formulating actionable recommendations to facilitate progress towards end-of-project targets.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5615gef
2018AngolaUNEPAngola Urban EbA: Using an EbA approach to increase the resilience of three cities in Angola to climate change

C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. Project objectives include: i) improving access to climate information to inform climate-resilient planning and development in cities; ii) reducing the vulnerability of poor urban communities to climate change by implementing adaptation interventions in target cities; iii) strengthening the technical and institutional capacity of local and national governments to integrate adaptation into development planning; and iv) enhancing knowledge and awareness among the public including government, NGOs, and local communities of this approach.

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2018EthiopiaUNDPMainstreaming incentives for biodiversity conservation in climate-resilient green economy strategy (CRGE)

C4 conducted a Mid-term Review for this project, which is funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project objective is to ensure that the biodiversity of Ethiopia is protected from current and future threats by ensuring that development and investment decisions do not impact negatively on biodiversity in the country. The project activities include: i) strengthening the enabling framework for mainstreaming incentives for biodiversity conservation into the countrys economic development; and ii) implementing Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in at least 20,000 ha of Ethiopias Afromontane ecoregion, resulting in improved stewardship by community land managers and reduced pressure on biodiversity.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5440gef
2018LebanonUNDPSustainable Land Management in the Qaraoun Catchment, Lebanon

C4 conducted a Mid-term Review for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The purpose of this MTR was to assess project performance to date (regarding relevance, effectivenessand efficiency), identify successes and challenges faced, and provide recommendations to ensure that the project meets its intended targets.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5229gef
2018EritreaUNDPRestoring degraded forest landscapes and promoting community-based, sustainable and integrated natural resource management in the Rora Habab Plateau, Eritrea

C4 developed a Project Document that was submitted to the GEF and approved for implementation in June 2018. The project objective is to mainstream sustainable land management, forestry and biodiversity conservation into land-use planning and agricultural production practices in the Nakfa Sub-Zoba of Eritrea. Land degradation will also be addressed through community participation in ecological restoration of mountain forests.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/9266gef
2018UgandaUNEPReducing the climate change vulnerability of local communities in Uganda through Ecosystem-based Adaptation in forest and wetland ecosystems

C4 developed a Project Document for UNEP, which was submitted to the GEF/LDCF and approved in July 2019. The project objective is to reduce Ugandas vulnerability to climate change by: i) providing knowledge support by conducting climate change vulnerability assessments and ecosystem services mapping; ii) facilitating the integration of EbA options into forest and wetland management plans; iii) building the capacity of local communities and government authorities to plan and implement EbA as part of local and national adaptation strategies; iv) restoring degraded forest and wetland ecosystems to reduce vulnerability of local communities to climate change impacts and demonstrate adaptive benefits of EbA; v) promoting alternative climate-resilient livelihoods to reduce pressure on forest and wetland ecosystems; vi) developing a strategy for upscaling, sustaining and replicating EbA interventions; and vii) increasing knowledge and awareness of EbA at a national level through awareness-raising and long-term research.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/8035gef
2015-2019PakistanUNDPSustainable forest management to secure multiple benefits in Pakistan’s high conservation value forests

C4 developed a Project Document for this project to be funded by the GEF Trust Fund, approved for implementation on 15 December 2015. The project objective was to promote sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation and securing of forest ecosystem services. Project activities included: i) supporting the incorporation of sustainable forest management objectives and safeguards in forest management planning, forestland allocation and compliance of monitoring systems at the local level; ii) identifying and implementing on-the-ground approaches to conserving forests within seven landscapes covering an area of ~68,000 ha to meet thethe target species ecological requirements, such as breeding areas, feeding areas, water sources, dispersal and connectivity corridors; and iii) developing practical approaches to enhancing carbon sequestration through restoring degraded and former forested areas (LULUCF activities) by a combination of restoration and reforestation of ~10,000 ha of degraded conifer forests; 3,400 ha of degraded scrub forests and reforestation of ~13,000 ha of riverine forests with native species.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5660gef
2018-2019NepalUNEPUrban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate-resilient development in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

C4 led the development of a Project Document for this GEF-funded project, approved in August 2019. The project objective is to integrate the use of urban EbA to reduce the impacts of climate change and promote green infrastructure in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Project activities include: i) developing the capacity for municipalities to include urban EbA into their planning processes; ii) strengthening knowledge management for EbA in Nepal to include urban EbA; and iii) implementing urban EbA interventions to strengthen the climate resilience of local communities living in the Kathmandu Valley.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/8009/gef
2018-2019Albania, Algeria, Libya, Montenegro, Morocco and TunisiaUNEPEnhancing regional climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean Marine and Coastal Areas

C4 led the development of a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved in May 2019. The project objective is to enhance the capacities of countries in the Mediterranean region to adapt to climate change and influence wider development processes in the region. Project activities include: i) strengthening stakeholder engagement on climate change adaptation and enhancing partnerships; ii) mainstreaming adaptation into local Integrated Coastal Zone Management plans; iii) facilitating access to international climate change adaptation financing; and iv) strengthening science-policy interface, accessibility of related knowledge and enhanced regional climate information.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/9670/gef
2019ZambiaWorld Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)Sustainable Luangwa: Securing Luangwas water resources for shared socioeconomic and environmental benefits through integrated catchment management

C4 developed a Project Identification Formfor this GEF-funded project; the concept was approved in November 2019. The project objective is to achieve integrated management of natural resources in the Luangwa sub-catchment for the improved conservation of biodiversity and community livelihoods. Project activities follow a Catchment Management Plan and include: i) developing a Water Resource Protected Area proposal for the upper reaches of the sub-catchment ii) reinforcing the demarcation of National Forest Reserves; iii) undertaking various awareness-raising and capacity building activities with local communities; iv) establishing community conservation agreements; v) introducing conservation agriculture; and vi) implementing plans for participatory designation and management of community forest areas.

GEFwww.thegef.org/project/sustainable-luangwa-securing-luangwas-water-resources-shared-socioeconomic-and-environmentalgef
2014-2020Mauritania, Nepal, Seychelles and ChinaUNEPEnhancing capacity, knowledge and technology support to build climate resilience of vulnerable developing countries

C4 provided technical advisory services for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. These services included budget revisions, workplan development, preparing Terms of References, overseeing monitoring and evaluation and writing summary reports. The project is building climate resilience using EbA in LDCs and SIDS in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa. This is achieved by increasing institutional capacity, mobilising knowledge and transferring appropriate technologies on climate change adaptation to Mauritania, Nepal and the Seychelles. Specifically, these best-practice EbA technologies are being transferred from China to the pilot countries.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/4934gef
2018-2020ZambiaUNEPBuilding the resilience of local communities in Zambia through the introduction of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) into priority ecosystems, including wetlands and forests

C4 led the development of a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved in May 2020. The project objective is to increase the capacity of government and local communities living around wetlands and forests to adapt to climate change using EbA. Project activities include: i) increasing technical and institutional capacity to integrate EbA into existing management plans for ecosystems at a local and national level; ii) building resilience of communities living around degraded ecosystems against climate change impacts by implementing EbA interventions in wetlands and forests; and iii) increasing capacity of communities living around the project intervention sites to adopt alternative livelihoods and climate-smart agriculture techniques to decrease their vulnerability to climate change and reduce degradation of ecosystems.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/8034/gef
2020The GambiaUNIDOStrengthening adaptative capacities to climate change through capacity building for small scale enterprises and communities dependent on coastal fisheries in The Gambia

C4 led the revision of the CEO Endorsement Request for this GEF-funded project, addressing GEF comments, with the project approved for implementation in August 2021. The objective of the project is to increase the adaptive capacity and climate change resilience of coastal fisheries and dependent populations and enterprises by: i) mainstreaming climate change adaptation measures; ii) demonstrating and scaling up climate-resilient business models for value addition and employment along the fisheries value chain, particularly targeting vulnerable women and the youth; and iii) supporting enhanced community empowerment.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/9194gef
2015-2021AlbaniaUNEPBuilding the resilience of Kune-Vaini Lagoon through Ecosystem-based Adaptation

C4 provided technical advisory services to this GEF/LDCF-funded project, including budget revisions, workplan development, preparing Terms of References, overseeing M&E and writing summary reports. The project objective is to increase the resilience of the Kune-Vaini Lagoon system and surrounding communities using EbA interventions, such as dune stabilisation and riparian forest restoration.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/5386gef
2019-2021BotswanaUNDPManaging the human-wildlife interface to sustain the flow of agro-ecosystem services and prevent illegal wildlife trafficking in the Kgalagadi and Ghanzi Drylands

C4 provided technical advisory services to this GEF-funded project, including budget revisions, workplan development, preparing Terms of References, overseeing monitoring and evaluation and writing summary reports. The project objective is to promote an integrated landscape management approach to managing the Kgalagadi and Ghanzi Drylands to promote ecosystem resilience, improved livelihoods and reduced conflicts between land uses specifically biodiversity conservation, economic and livelihood activities.

GEFwww.thegef.org/project/managing-human-wildlife-interface-sustain-flow-agro-ecosystem-services-and-prevent-illegalgef
2020-2021GlobalUNDPSupporting the Delivery of Small Grants to Communities

Anthony Mills undertook an organisational review of UNDP to identify options for delivering a multi-donor-funded portfolio of US$1 billion targeting localised actions on nature, climate and energy. The objectives and structures of UNDP-implemented existing small grants activities were reviewed and options were proposed for expansion of the size and scope of current community-level work with new partners or additional sources of funding. Lessons learned from UNDPs partnership with the GEF, particularly GEF Evaluations of the Small Grants Programme, were used to develop a plan to establish a Local Action Cluster within the Bureau for Programme and Policy Support.

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2020-2021ZambiaUNDPStrengthening Management Effectiveness and Generating Multiple Environmental Benefits within and around the Greater Kafue National Park and West-Lunga National Park in Zambia

C4 completed the Terminal Evaluation for this GEF-funded project in Zambia. The objectives of the project were to safeguard biodiversity and carbon sinks in protected areas (PAs) surrounding Kafue and West Lunga National Parks, as well as improve PA management by communities and relevant institutions.

GEFerc.undp.org/evaluation/evaluations/detail/8384gef
2020-2021AngolaConservation InternationalStrengthening climate resilience and biodiversity management in Angola’s conservation areas

C4 led the development of a Project Document and CEO Endorsement Request for this GEF-funded project, which was approved for implementation in June 2021. The project aims to strengthen the resilience of local communities in Angola to climate change impacts by improving the integrated management and conservation of the protected areas and biodiversity that contribute to their livelihoods. Project activities include: i) introducing climate-resilient and biodiversity-compatible alternative livelihood options; ii) improving the management effectiveness of protected areas in Angola; iii) enhancing the institutional capacity of national climate change and conservation organisations; and iv) improving the monitoring, capturing and sharing of lessons learned from this and similar projects. This project forms one of several child projects of the Global Wildlife Program led by the World Bank Group.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/10505gef
2020-2021BotswanaUNDPIntegrated Land Use Management Plan (ILUMP) under the Kgalagadi and Ghanzi Dryland Ecosystem Project (KGDEP)

C4 supported the development of an ILUMP for Botswanas Kgalagadi and Ghanzi Districts under Component 3 of KGDEP. Objectives of the plan include: i) strengthening integrated natural resources management across the districts; ii) contributing to the attainment of sustainable development goals; iii) ensuring that Vision 2036 is integrated into local planning processes; iv) promoting sustainable livelihoods; v) supporting local economic development; and vi) safeguarding local ecosystems and wildlife from the encroachment of unstainable livelihood practices and ecosystem degradation. The plan will revise the Wildlife Management Areas linking select districts. Communities will be supported with the goal of securing habitat for wildlife populations that migrate between the two protected areas.

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2020-2021RwandaUNEPFeasibility Study for strengthening Rwanda’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process project

C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study of the projects proposed EbA interventions. The assignment included determining the feasibility of interventions, designing the interventions that are found to be feasible and developing a long-term research programme to study their benefits and cost-effectiveness. The project currently assists the Government of Rwanda in implementing the NAP process by strengthening its: i) technical and institutional capacity for medium- and long-term adaptation planning; ii) technical capacity to mobilise funding for climate change adaptation; and iii) scientific capacity to monitor, evaluate and generate knowledge on adaptation interventions. Such strengthening will be achieved through three components, namely: i) technical and institutional capacity for the NAP process in Rwanda; ii) advancing climate-resilient technologies and practices; and iii) monitoring, reviewing and knowledge-sharing to learn from the NAP process in Rwanda.

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2018-2022AngolaUNEPAddressing urgent coastal adaptation needs and capacity gaps in Angola

C4 provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project objective is to enhance institutional and community-level capacity to adapt to climate change along the coast of Angola. Project activities include: i) enhancing the national early warning system; ii) restoring coastal ecosystems and demonstrating adaptation interventions to local communities; and iii) enhancing institutional coordination for proactive adaptation in Angola. Technical advisory services included budget revisions, workplan development, developing Terms of References, overseeing M&E and authoring of summary reports.

GEFwww.thegef.org/project/addressing-urgent-coastal-adaptation-needs-and-capacity-gaps-angolagef
2019-2022Timor-LesteUNEPAdapting to climate change and enabling sustainable land management through productive rural communities in Timor-Leste

C4 developed the Project Document and CEO Endorsement Request for this GEF project; the Project Information Form was approved in May 2021. By accessing resources from both the GEF Trust Fund and GEF/LDCF, this project will focus on the nexus between land degradation and climate change adaptation in rural Timor-Leste. Project activities include: i) developing a national policy framework and partnerships for achieving land degradation neutrality goals; ii) implementing climate-resilient landscape and community development initiatives in two target municipalities; iii) strengthening sustainable land management practices and developing agribusiness models; and iv) developing monitoring and knowledge management systems to facilitate upscaling of best practices across the country.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/10713/gef
2020-2022MalawiUNDPTransformational Adaptation for Climate Resilience in the Lake Chilwa Basin of Malawi (TRANSFORM)

C4 developed the Project Document and CEO Endorsement Request for this GEF project; the Project Information Form was approved in November 2021. The objective of the project is to reduce the vulnerability of communities surrounding Lake Chilwa to the adverse effects of climate change by strengthening the resilience of livelihoods through EbA and financing climate-resilient enterprises. Project activities include: i) enhancing cross-sectoral technical capacity for climate change adaptation in Malawi; ii) implementing EbA interventions and sustainable climate-resilient livelihoods; and iii) enhancing market linkages for and private sector investment in adaptation options and climate-resilient enterprises.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/10777gef
2020-2022HaitiUNDPStrengthening the climatic resilience of the drinking water sector in the South-East of Haiti

C4 led the development of the Project Document, CEO Endorsement Request and associated annexes for this GEF-funded project, approved for implementation on 12 September 2022. The project objective is to support the Government of Haiti in enhancing the resilience of the drinking water sector in vulnerable communities of the South-East Department of Haiti. Project activities include: i) improving awareness and understanding of the water sectors vulnerability to climate change; ii) strengthening regulatory and policy frameworks, and building capacity at the national, regional and local levels for the sustainable management of drinking water; and iii) promoting adaptation practices to conserve and manage drinking water, including ecosystem-based adaptation interventions.

GEFwww.adaptation-undp.org/projects/strengthening-climatic-resilience-drinking-water-sector-south-haitigef
2020-2022Laos PDRUNDPIntegrated Water Resource Management and Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang city

C4 led the development of the Project Identification Form, the Project Document, CEO Endorsement Request and associated annexes for this GEF LDCF-funded project, approved on 23 May 2022 for implementation. The project is to be implemented in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and the city of Luang Prabang, both of which are severely impacted by annual fluvial and flash flooding and the increasing severity of droughts. Project activities include l: i) develop national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban EbA for climate risk reduction; ii) develop EbA interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement; and iii) develop knowledge management and Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning products.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/10514gef
2020-2022LiberiaUNDPEnhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of Liberia

C4 led the development of a Project Document and CEO Endorsement Request for this GEF-funded project. The project was approved for implementation in May 2022 and aims to strengthen the resilience of coastal communities in Liberia to climate change impacts by promoting innovation and technology transfer for climate change adaption as well as mainstreaming climate change adaptation and resilience for systemic impact. Project activities include: i) strengthening the capacity of all coastal counties planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider County Development Agendas; ii) introduce innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation, including response planning and communication mechanisms; iii) reduce the vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering); and iv) introduce gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification to vulnerable coastal communities.

GEFwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/10376gef
2022EritreaUNDPGPN/ExpRes Vetted Roster of Experts: Review and gender mainstream two UNDP GEF Environment/Climate change Projects (PIMS4633 and PIMS5519)

C4 supported the UNDP Eritrea Country Office by reviewing and updating two project proposal documents, PIMS4633 and PIMS5519. The review process evaluated the documents’ strategy, rationale, theory of change, gender considerations and result frameworks. The C4 team worked closely with UNDP and an Eritrean team to identify those sections of the documents which require updating. The Eritrean team was responsible for obtaining updated information from government departments, local and other relevant stakeholders. C4 then updated the proposal documents using the gathered information, additional research and collation. The projects that will be reviewed are: i) PIMS4633: Mainstreaming Climate Risk Considerations in Food Security and IWRM in Tsilima Plains, Eritrea; and ii) PIMS5519: Restoring degraded forest landscapes and promoting community-based, sustainable, and integrated natural resource management in the Rora Habab Plateau.

GEFwww.undp.org/eritreagef
2021-2023TuvaluUNEPEcosystem-based adaptation for improved livelihood in Tuvalu

C4 developed a Project Identification Form and the Project Preparation Grant for this GEF-funded project in Tuvalu. As part of this, C4 is responsible for developing the Project Document, CEO Endorsement Letter and accompanying annexes. The project aims to support Tuvalus vulnerable populations in overcoming the impacts of climate change-induced sea-level rise, coastal storms and rainfall variability on food production in Tuvalu. Project activities include: i) identifying and implementing integrated land management and ecosystem restoration strategies to build resilience of agricultural systems and ecosystem services to climate change; and ii) creating an enabling environment to implement EbA by improving national policy and planning frameworks, strengthening institutional capacity, raising awareness and addressing barriers to climate change adaptation.

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2023Rwanda UNDP Building Community Resilience and Transforming Livelihoods through Systems-based Adaptation and Integrated Resource Management in Rwandas Southern Province

C4 developed a Project Identification Form (PIF) for this GEF-funded project in Rwandas Southern Province. This project will be reviewed by the GEF Secretariat at the December 2023 Board Meeting, pending approval. The objective of the project is to enhance community climate resilience by supporting livelihood security and improving land and natural resource management. This objective will be achieved by integrating economic incentives like agricultural inputs and livelihood assistance along with advanced technologies to alleviate pressure on natural resources and reduce vulnerability to climate hazards. Under the project interventions, local communities will be empowered to adopt climate-smart and sustainable livelihoods, including circular agriculture activities. To support this, community-led organisations will take on a fundamental role in facilitating peer-to-peer learning. In addition, the proposed project will create opportunities for enterprise development and attract private investment geared towards climate-resilient resource management and livelihoods.

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Ongoing since 2023 Vanuatu UNDP Adaptation to Climate Change in the Coastal Zone of Vanuatu – Phase II

C4 is developing an updated climate information system in Vanuatu. The objectives of this initiative are to: i) assess existing climate information systems and datasets to identify current capabilities and gaps; ii) develop an enhanced climate information and early warning system informed by the assessment; iii) prepare training materials and conduct training sessions to support the adoption of the updated climate information system. Both the enhanced system and the insights derived from this initiative will provide local governments and stakeholders in Vanuatu with valuable information, enabling informed decision making.

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2023-2024Eswatini UNDP Nature-based Solutions for Agropastoral Resilience to Climate Change in Catchments of Southern Africa

The Nature-based Solutions for Agropastoral Resilience to Climate Change in Catchments (NbS-ARC) of Southern Africa project, coordinated by UNDP and partners, will facilitate access to necessary climate finance for three Southern African countries: Eswatini, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The project interventions focus on Nature-based Solutions to enhance water and food security within the catchments of these three countries. In response to the compounded challenges of climate change and land degradation, which exacerbate food and water scarcity, the project aligns with the expressed needs of the governments and various stakeholders, including those from the private sector. The project will support governments, the private sector and communities to develop and implement: i) climate-risk-informed watershed restoration; and ii) climate-resilient practices and technologies for agricultural production and sustainable pasture management within a comprehensive Catchment Investment Programs framework. C4 is overseeing the design of the Eswatini component of the project to ensure that it is responsive to the unique country context.

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2023-2024The GambiaUNEPEnhancing Urban Resilience Against Floods, Droughts and Rising Sea Levels in the Greater Banjul Area (URBANJUL)

C4 is assisting UNEP in developing a Project Identification Form (PIF) for a GEF-funded project in the Greater Banjul Area (GBA) of The Gambia. The objective of the project is to enhance the climate resilience of urban and peri-urban communities in the GBA by supporting urban planning and sustainable land management, establishing green-grey infrastructure and increasing investment in Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA). This objective will be achieved using an integrated approach that involves: i) strengthening the enabling environment for sustainable development and climate-resilient urban planning; ii) supporting sustainable land management (SLM), and livelihoods; iii) establishing green-grey infrastructure for managing sea level rise, floods and drought; iii) leveraging sustainable finance for scaling up investment in climate change adaptation; and iv) improving knowledge management and information dissemination related to urban resilience and climate change adaptation. Under the proposed project, local communities will be empowered to adopt climate-smart and sustainable livelihoods that alleviate pressure on natural resources and reduce vulnerability to climate hazards.

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2023-2024TanzaniaUNEPUpscaling Ecosystem-based Adaptation to enhance ecosystem services and community adaptive capacity in the Serengeti ecosystem

C4 is developing a Project Identification Form for this GEF-funded project in Tanzania. This project uses Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) to strengthen the resilience of pastoralists, agro-pastoralists and smallholder farmers to floods and droughts. Project outcomes will be realised by: i) strengthening capacity to operationalise EbA-focused village land use plans (VLUPs) into rural planning; ii) enhancing the climate-resilience of the Serengeti ecosystem and its communities through restoration and sustainable management; iii) developing a sustainable finance mechanism to ensure the upscaling of VLUPs; and iv) improving knowledge management and information sharing to support upscaling and replication of best practices related to EbA in Tanzania.

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2015-2016The GambiaUNEPLarge-scale ecosystem-based adaptation in The Gambia: developing a climate-resilient, natural resource-based economy

C4 developed the Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal, which were submitted to the GCF and approved in June 2016. This project aims to build the climate resilience of rural Gambian communities and facilitate the development of a sustainable, natural resource-based economy by implementing large-scale EbA. Project activities included: i) large-scale EbA to build a climate-resilient natural resource base; ii) the development of markets for natural resource-based businesses; and iii) policy support, institutional strengthening and knowledge generation to support the large-scale implementation of EbA.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/fp011gcf
2016IndiaUNDPEnhancing climate resilience of India’s coastal communities

C4 developed a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal, which were submitted to the GCF and approved in October 2018. Combining GCF grant finance with leveraged co-finance, the project supported the Government of India in enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in India to climate change. The project integrated ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation into coastal management and planning by the public sector, private sector and civil society. This outcome was achieved by: i) investing in ecological infrastructure to buffer against climate-induced hazards, particularly storm surges; ii) supporting climate-resilient coastal livelihoods; and iii) enhancing cross-sectoral planning and governance of the coastal zone, accounting for climate-risks.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/fp084gcf
2017MauritaniaUNEPStrengthening Mauritanias capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Mauritania, which was approved by the GCF. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Mauritania; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Mauritania and UNEP.

GCFwww.globalsupportprogramme.org/launching-nap-process-mauritaniagcf
2017IraqUNEPStrengthening Iraqs capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process

C4 co-developed a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal for this GCF-funded project, which aims to strengthen Iraqs technical, institutional and financial capacity to enhance national climate resilience. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Iraq; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Iraq and UNEP.

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2017GuineaUNDPGCF Readiness Programme in Guinea

C4 provided technical advisory services for UNDP with the task of assisting the Government of Guinea to establish a National Designated Authority (NDA) for GCF. This work included guiding the related processes (letter of non-objection and coordination mechanism) and identifying national entities that could be accredited. The tasks involved engaging with stakeholders within governmental and non-governmental institutions to: i) analyse existing institutional arrangements in Guinea and suggest an institutional framework that could serve as interface between the government and the GCF; ii) identify capacity-building needs for the NDA and develop a training plan; iii) facilitate workshops to inform relevant stakeholders about the accreditation process for the GCF; and iv) help identify national entities that could be accredited and their needs in terms of capacity building.

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2017KazakhstanUNDPBuilding the climate resilience of small and medium agricultural enterprises in Kazakhstan

C4 developed a Concept Note and Pre-feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. C4 previously developed a Project Idea Note, which provided the groundwork for this proposal. The project aims to enhance the resilience of vulnerable communities to climate change and extreme climate events by enabling small and medium agricultural enterprises (SMEs) to access finance for climate-resilient adaptation practices and technologies through three interrelated outputs: i) enhanced capacity of agricultural SMEs to implement adaptation practices and technologies; ii) strengthened technical capacity of KazAgro a national agricultural financing institution to finance adaptation practices and technologies; and iii) adaptation practices and technologies implemented through the disbursement of loans to agricultural SMEs.

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2015-2018BeninUNEPEnhanced climate resilience of rural communities in central and north Benin through the implementation of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in forest and agricultural landscapes

C4 led the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal submitted to the GCF through the Simplified Approval Process (SAP), with the project approved for funding in February 2019. The project aims to support the Government of Benin to improve the livelihoods and food security of local communities by developing natural resource-based income opportunities and buffering communities against the effects of climate change. Project activities include: i) restoring land for multi-use energy and livelihood benefits; ii) improving and securing agricultural livelihoods threatened by climate change; and iii) strengthening the technical and institutional capacity of the government and communities for implementing EbA and climate-resilient agriculture.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/sap005gcf
2017-2018KyrgyzstanUNDPImproving the climate resilience of irrigation water-supply infrastructure to mudflows and floods in southern Kyrgyzstan

C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project, which supported the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in enhancing the resilience of vulnerable water supply infrastructure in southern Kyrgyzstan to the impacts of mudflows and floods. The project invested in building the climate resilience of local communities by: i) enhancing the capacity of the Government of Kyrgyzstan to model and forecast mudflows; ii) climate proofing water supply infrastructure; and iii) improving policies, regulations and building codes for the climate-resilient water supply infrastructure.

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2017-2018South AfricaGIZ and the Government of South AfricaBuilding climate resilience through ecosystem-based adaptation and natural resource-based businesses in South Africa

C4 developed a Concept Note, Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal, which were submitted to the GCF. The project focuses on supporting the Government of South Africa in enhancing the resilience of vulnerable rural communities to climate change and extreme events. Working with the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) and the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), C4 developed the project, which aims to rehabilitate and sustainably manage: i) subtropical thickets; ii) coastal and riparian forests; iii) woodlands; iv) grasslands; and v) wetland systems in four provinces, supported by national policy and institutional advances.

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2018Kingdom of BahrainUNEPEnhancing climate resilience and water security in Bahrain

C4 developed a Concept Note, Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal, which were submitted to the GCF and approved in October 2018. The project aims to support the Government of Bahrain in enhancing water security under future climate conditions. Project activities included building the resilience of Bahrains water sector to climate change by improving demand management and creating a reliable knowledge base for climate-resilient water management.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/sap003gcf
2018IndonesiaUNEPBukit Tigapuluh Sustainable Landscape Project (Project Pangolin)

C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project, which focuses on the concept of sustainable rubber plantations in Indonesia and aims tol mitigate carbon emissions by: i) planting both rubber and indigenous forest trees in degraded landscapes; and ii) reducing deforestation of high-carbon stock forests adjacent to rubber plantations.

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2018ZimbabweUNEPBuilding capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process in Zimbabwe

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Zimbabwe, which was approved by the GCF. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Zimbabwe; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Zimbabwe and UNEP.

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2018Kingdom of EswatiniUNEPBuilding capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process in the Kingdom of Eswatini

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Swaziland, which was approved by the GCF. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Swaziland; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Swaziland and UNEP.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/document/adaptation-planning-support-eswatini-through-unepgcf
2017-2019PhilippinesUNDPStrengthening the resilience of the most vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in the Philippines Eastern Seaboard

C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project, which aims to provide support to the Government of the Philippines to enhance the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities along the Eastern Seaboard to climate change and extreme weather events. The project intends to catalyse a shift towards ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation in coastal planning and development, with a focus on ICZM. Project activities include: i) assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme climate events; ii) supporting community- and ecosystem-based livelihoods that are resilient to climate change; and iii) integrating climate change into local planning, including comprehensive land use plans for vulnerable coastal zones.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/document/strengthening-resilience-most-vulnerable-coastal-communities-climate-change-philippinesgcf
2017-2019Laos PDRUNEPBuilding the resilience of urban populations in Laos with ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)

C4 developed a Feasibility Study and SAP Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project, which was approved by the GCF at the 25th GCF Board Meeting held in November 2019. The project was implemented in four major cities in Laos Vientiane, Paksan, Savannakhet and Pakse which are rapidly growing urban areas adjacent to the Mekong River. These cities are severely impacted by annual river flooding and flash floods. Future climate change conditions are expected to result in an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events in Laos, which will likely lead to more frequent and severe flooding in these vulnerable cities. To address this climate change problem, the project sought to: i) strengthen technical capacity to reduce flood impacts by improving knowledge management on appropriate flood reduction measures; ii) develop city-level integrated flood management strategies; iii) identify sustainable financing options for integrated flood management; and iv) implement urban EbA solutions, such as permeable paving solutions to increase drainage and reduce the impacts of flooding on urban areas.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/sap009gcf
2017-2020Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentResilience to hurricanes in the building sector in Antigua and Barbuda

C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal, which were submitted to the GCF and approved in August 2020. The project aims to build the climate resilience of Antigua and Barbuda to the impacts of hurricanes by: i) supporting the mainstreaming of climate-proofing measures into funding mechanisms, policies and standards for the building sector; ii) strengthening technical capacity for planning, implementing and monitoring climate-proofing and other adaptation interventions in the building sector; iii) assessing barriers, identifying financial instruments and developing operational guidelines to facilitate private sector access to funding for adaptation in buildings; iv) climate-proofing identified public buildings to improve resilience to extreme climate events including tropical storms, hurricanes, droughts and extended dry periods, floods and rising air temperatures and improve adaptation interventions during such events; and v) developing and implementing plans for climate-proofing activities and interventions in community buildings.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/fp133gcf
2018-2019Federal Republic of NigeriaUNEPStrengthening Nigerias capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Nigeria which was approved by the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Nigeria and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/document/adaptation-planning-support-nigeria-through-unepgcf
2018-2020LesothoUNEPStrengthening Lesothos capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Lesotho which was approved by the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Lesotho and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/document/strengthening-lesotho-s-capacity-advance-national-adaptation-planning-processgcf
2018-2020Angola, Botswana, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, eSwatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and ZimbabweGlobal Water PartnershipSouthern African Development Community Hydrological Cycle Observation System (SADC-HYCOS) Phase IV: increasing climate resilience in the region through scaling up climate information and disaster risk reduction

C4 led the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. Phase IV of the SADC-HYCOS aims to address increasing climate change risks in the region by scaling-up disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities and catalysing a paradigm shift in the regional approach to climate information. In addition, the project seeks to increase the DRR capacity of SADC member-states and generate hydrological knowledge products that will increase climate resilience in the SADC region.

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2018-2020GhanaUNEP-DHIImproving resilience of food security and water management to climate variability and change

C4 supported the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal under the Simplified Approval Process for this GCF-funded project, which aims to build on GCF Readiness Programme activities to elicit a paradigm shift in Ghanas approach to drought management, with a focus on improving food security under conditions of climate change. Project activities include: i) building institutional capacity for drought management; ii) enhancing hydrometeorological service delivery systems; and iv) improving knowledge management frameworks.

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2018-2020ZambiaGlobal Water PartnershipClimate-proofed water supply and sanitation for Livingstone, Zambia

C4 developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which will be implemented in Livingstone, Zambia. The project aims to increase the resilience of Livingstones water supply to climate change-induced fluctuations in the Zambezi River levels, while reducing emissions by capturing methane and increasing efficiency of pumping operations. Development of the Funding Proposal for the project commenced in late-2019, led by the Global Water Partnership. C4 performed a strategic oversight and peer-review role for this phase of project development and provides specialist input on climate change modelling and projections.

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2018-2020MyanmarUNEPBuilding climate resilience through ecosystem-based adaptation in Rakhine State and Irrawaddy River Delta, Myanmar

C4 led the development of a Concept Note and Project Preparation Facility Application for this GCF-funded project, which aims to support the Government of Myanmar in implementing climate change adaptation interventions in Rakhine State and the Irrawaddy River Delta, with focus on increasing the resilience of coastal communities to floods, cyclones and storm surges. Project activities include: i) mainstreaming EbA and integrated coastal zone management into sectoral policies and development planning; ii) implementing ecosystem-based adaptation and integrated coastal zone management; and iii) developing climate-resilient livelihoods.

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2018-2020BotswanaUNDPBuilding climate resilience of agricultural systems in the North-East and Central Districts of Botswana

C4 led the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which aims to increase the climate resilience of Botswanas agricultural sector in the central and northeastern districts of the countryProject activities include: i) strengthening the capacity of national and local governments to implement climate-resilient agricultural practices; ii) introducing climate-resilient agricultural techniques and technologies; and iii) improving the provision of climate information in the agricultural sector.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/22510gcf
2019-2020Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentTransition from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) in the public and private transportation sector using a sector coupling of the transportation and electricity sectors

C4 led the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. As a Small Island Developing State (SIDS), Antigua and Barbuda is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme climate events, such as hurricanes, floods and droughts. The financial and economic impacts of these extreme climate events in Antigua and Barbuda limit the governments capacity to meet its mitigation target of transitioning the road transportation sector from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) by 2040 through domestic financing. The project strategy is to initiate a paradigm shift towards low-emissions transport by: i) establishing an institutional and regulatory framework for replacing ICE vehicles; ii) supporting a Just Transition of the transportation sector workforce; iii) promoting public and private sector buy-in through awareness-raising campaigns and funding mechanisms; and iv) procuring EVs for the government and public transport fleets and installing charging stations in public areas.

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2019-2020Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and UgandaUNDPStrengthening Climate Information Systems for Climate Change Adaptation in the Greater Horn of Africa through regional cooperation

C4 led the development of a Simplified Approval Process Concept Note and Pre-feasibility Study. The project objective is to build the technical capacity of countries within the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) region through regional cooperation, ensuring that climate forecasts and projections can be generated and disseminated effectively and timeously to inform early action. Project activities include: i) increasing capacity to generate and use downscaled climate forecasts and projections at regional and national levels; ii) mainstreaming climate information into key policies and programmes of IGAD and its member states; and iii) developing regional systems to facilitate early action on extreme climate events.

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2019-2020DjiboutiUNDPMobilising surface runoff for vulnerable agro-pastoralists in Djibouti using a multi-benefit catchment management approach

C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. The objective of the project is to build a catchment-based integrated water management approach to simultaneously: i) improve access of agro-pastoralists to water supplies that are resilient to increasingly frequent floods and dry periods; and ii) reduce the downstream impacts of floods.

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2019-2020Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentA blueprint for adapting road infrastructure to projected climate extremes in Antigua and Barbuda

C4 co-developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. As a Small Island Developing State (SIDS), Antigua and Barbuda is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme climate events, such as hurricanes, floods and droughts. These events already have severe impacts on the countrys built environment, with these impacts expected to become increasingly severe under future climate change conditions. To address this problem, the proposed GCF Roads project aims to build on the existing Road Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Programme (RIRRP) to increase the climate resilience of critical road infrastructure and utilities in Antigua and Barbuda. Project activities include: i) climate-proofing four primary roads and their associated infrastructure; and ii) adapting target utilities to withstand the impacts of extreme climate events, including climate-induced floods, droughts and Category 4 and 5 hurricanes.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/document/blueprint-adapting-road-infrastructure-projected-climate-extremes-antigua-and-barbudagcf
2020Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentSupporting Antigua and Barbuda’s NDCs implementation towards a transformation to Climate Resilient and Low-Emission Development Pathway 20212023

C4 led the development of a Multi-year Readiness Proposal (MYRP) for the Government of Antigua and Barbuda, which was submitted to the GCF in 2020. This three-year proposal aims to mobilise US$2.7 million in GCF Readiness financing to fulfil enabling activities in priority economic sectors necessary for the country to transition to a sustainable, low-emission and climate-resilient development pathway. Specific activities include: i) supporting the National Designated Authority, Direct Access Entity, private sector stakeholders and Non-Governmental Organisations in fulfilling their respective roles within Antigua and Barbudas climate change action matrix to ensure alignment with the updated Nationally Determined Contribution; ii) identifying areas for implementing new technologies, policies and legal frameworks necessary to support the development and implementation of Antigua and Barbudas GCF project pipeline; and iii) facilitating accreditation upgrades of the Department of Environment (as the countrys Accredited Entity to the GCF) to enable the department to increase their on-blending/lending to include loans (small), equity (micro) and guarantees (micro), as well as to upgrade their Environmental and Social Risk Category rating (Risk Category A).

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2020Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentPreparation of the national grid for integration of 86% renewable energy in Antigua and Barbuda

C4 led the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which aims to facilitate the preparation of the national grid to integrate renewable energy (RE) by: i) updating institutional and regulatory frameworks to create an enabling environment for investment in utility-scale RE; ii) upgrading and insuring electricity transmission and distribution infrastructure to increase resilience to hurricanes; and iii) upgrading grid control systems to enhance load management and flexibility. Project activities include investment in battery energy storage systems and preparation for the development of a smart grid and virtual power plants in Antigua and Barbuda.

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2020Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentMainstreaming financial resilience to climate change in Antigua and Barbuda

C4 led the development of a Concept Note and PPF Application for this GCF-funded project, which aims to mainstream climate-resilient investment and de-risking options into Antigua and Barbudas important economic sectors, including tourism and fisheries, in preparation for the development of the Funding Proposal. Project activities include: i) assessing financial exposure to climate change; ii) developing climate-resilient financial products/solutions targeting the private sector, households and public sector management frameworks; iii) developing legislation and regulations for new climate-resilient financial services that are in line with the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) standards; and iv) establishing the knowledge base and data systems to implement financial risk reduction solutions that are scalable and replicable nationally and across the Caribbean region.

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2020South SudanUNEPGCF Training Course for South Sudan NDA

C4 delivered a GCF training course to representatives of the National Designated Authority of South Sudan. Conducted as part of a GCF Readiness Project, the training focused on the fundamentals of GCF project development, GCF policies, result frameworks, investment criteria, gender responsiveness, safeguard considerations and implementation arrangements.

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2020Tonga, Vanuatu and SamoaSecretariat of the Pacific CommunityEstablishing resilient, low-carbon agricultural systems in Tonga, Vanuatu and Samoa

C4 developed a Concept Note and Pre-feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project on behalf of the Pacific Community for Tonga, Vanuatu and Samoa. The project focuses on climate-resilient regenerative agriculture to build resilience to the impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector in the Pacific regionProject activities include: i) developing partnerships and institutional capacity to support climate-resilient, regenerative agriculture in the three target countries; ii) creating an enabling market environment and financial incentives for farmers to transition to climate-resilient, regenerative practices; iii) providing farmers with training and improving access to finance; and iv) implementing a monitoring, evaluation and learning system to ensure that implementation of climate-resilient, regenerative agricultural practices is adaptive and context-appropriate.

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2020Republic of South SudanUNEPEnhanced resilience to floods and droughts in South Sudan through climate-resilient Integrated Land and Water Resources Management (ILWRM)

C4 developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which aims to reduce the impacts of climate change particularly the increasing frequency and intensity of floods and droughts on vulnerable communities in the Kineti catchment and broader state of Eastern Equatoria in South Sudan. The strategy to achieve this objective involves implementing a climate-resilient integrated approach to land and water resources management. Such an approach will be underpinned by three main transformative and complementary interventions, namely: i) strengthening governance, technical and institutional capacity at the national and local levels for enhanced ILWRM; ii) implementing climate-resilient ILWRM practices and ecosystem restoration at strategic sites in Eastern Equatoria; and iii) improving knowledge management at the national and local levels to support the sustainable implementation of climate-resilient ILWRM and ecosystem restoration practices.

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2020Republic of South SudanUNEPDevelopment of the Republic of South Sudan’s GCF Country Programme

C4 led the development of the Republic of South Sudans GCF Country Programme (2020). The programme aims to design and implement several priority projects, with strategic areas for GCF investment identified to address the impacts of climate change on the country and its population. Specifically, these projects will be designed to contribute to the achievement of the countrys INDC (2015) adaptation and mitigation targets; and have complementary outcomes to facilitate a transformative shift in the way that the country develops solutions for reducing the impact of climate change on vulnerable communities, vital economic sectors and the environment.

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2020South SudanUNEPDevelopment of a climate finance tracking framework for South Sudan

As part of South Sudans GCF Readiness Programme, C4 developed a framework to track the mobilisation of climate finance in South Sudan. The framework considers both direct and indirect forms of climate finance, tracking the extent to which broader development finance currently contributes towards addressing climate change priorities in the country. In addition, the framework allows for an analysis of the extent to which climate finance is responsive to national objectives in the areas of poverty reduction and gender mainstreaming.

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2020Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentDevelopment of Antigua and Barbuda’s GCF Country Programme

C4 led the development of Antigua and Barbudas GCF Country Programme (2020). The programme aims to design and implement several priority adaptation and mitigation projects to address the impacts of climate change on the population and achieve the mitigation targets stipulated in Antigua and Barbudas 2020 NDCs. These projects will be designed to complement targets to facilitate a transformative shift in how the country develops solutions for reducing the impact of climate change on its most vulnerable communities and important economic sectors. Examples of these solutions include climate-proofing critical road infrastructure, establishing systems for Debt for Climate Swaps and designing innovative risk financing solutions for climate-vulnerable economic sectors. Moreover, the design of mitigation-focused priority projects will be underpinned by the principles of complementarity to initiate a transition in energy use from fossil fuels to renewable energy and achieve Antigua and Barbudas mitigation 2020 NDC targets. Priority projects under the GCF Country Programme aim to support the just transition of countries towards low-emission and climate-resilient development through a range of social interventions designed to secure workers rights and livelihoods when economies are shifting to sustainable production, particularly in renewable energy.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/document/antigua-and-barbuda-country-programmegcf
2020MozambiqueUNEPClimate Modelling and GIS Mapping of three estuaries in Mozambique assessing the role of tropical cyclones as risk multipliers

C4 led the development of a climate, land-use and tropical cyclone impact analysis in the Limpopo, Zambezi and Bons Sinais estuaries as part of the Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. These estuaries support several climate-exposed livelihoods, including fishing and agriculture. The objective of the project is to highlight the logical cause-and-effect relationships for various impacts, enabling the informed design of intervention strategies that promote more sustainable and protected land-use activities.

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2020Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentClimate-resilient and renewable distributed energy systems to facilitate rapid recovery after extreme climate events and support a 2030 fossil fuel phase-out in Antigua and Barbuda

C4 led the development of a Concept Note package for this GCF-funded project, which aims to facilitate the adoption of distributed renewable energy systems as part of the countrys transition to climate-resilient, low-carbon electricity generation. Project activities include: i) creating enabling institutional and regulatory systems for investment in distributed renewable energy; ii) initiating the Just Transition of the electricity sector workforce; iii) facilitating adoption of rooftop solar photovoltaic and battery systems as back-up power supply for households and small businesses; and iv) supporting farmers and community investors in developing distributed renewable energy systems and entering the electricity market as micro-independent power producers.

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2020Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentAntigua and Barbuda Debt for Climate Adaptation Swap

C4 led the development of a Discussion Paper/Idea Note, which provides the necessary context, justification and optioning for a proposed trilateral Debt for Climate Swap with the Green Climate Fund and the countrys Paris Club member creditors, for this GCF-funded initiative. Under the proposed debt swap arrangement, GCF funds will support, or partially finance, the redirection of Antigua and Barbudas ~US$147 million debt towards domestic investment in climate change projects. The intention of such an arrangement is to simultaneously ease the countrys external debt obligations and increase investment in climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions. These investments will be operationalised through the countrys Sustainable Island Resource Framework (SIRF) Fund, which will form a large part of the implementation modality. GCF Readiness funds (under the countrys Multi Year Readiness proposal) will support the establishment of financial and institutional mechanisms to facilitate the debt swap. This includes financing the: i) negotiations with creditors; ii) establishment of legal and contractual frameworks; iii) reaching of agreements with all relevant participating institutions, including GCF; DoE; MoF; and Paris Club; and iv) capacity building and institutional development of relevant GoAB and financial institutions.

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2018-2021GlobalUNEPGCF Strategy and Training Course for UNEP

C4 developed a strategy for UNEPs overall engagement with the GCF, as well as a training course for UNEP staff on GCF proposal development. The high-level strategy covered, inter alia, UNEPs vision, competitive advantages and institutional arrangements for its engagement with the GCF. The training focused on the fundamentals of GCF project development, GCF policies, result frameworks, investment criteria, gender responsiveness, safeguard considerations and implementation arrangements, as well as UNEP comparative advantages, procurement systems, legal arrangements and internal processes.

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2018-2021GeorgiaUNEPGCF Readiness Programme in Georgia: developing a NAP Readiness proposal

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Georgia which was submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) visiting the country and collaborating with the country focal points to gather information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Georgia and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

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2018-2021Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and The Dominican RepublicUNEPEcosystem-based adaptation to increase climate resilience in the Central American Dry Corridor and Arid Zones of the Dominican Republic

C4 developed the Concept Note, Funding Proposal, Feasibility Study and associated annexes for this GCF-funded project, approved in October 2021. The project aims to build the resilience of vulnerable communities at the landscape and household levels in prioritised watersheds to the impacts of increasing temperatures, droughts and extreme rainfall in Central Americas Dry Corridor and the Dominican Republics Arid Zones, through EbA across forests and agroforestry systems; and water-efficient technologies in communities. Project activities include i) capacity building for local governments, financial institutions and communities; ii) loans and microfinance for EbA activities and small green businesses; iii) mainstreaming EbA into policies and creating incentives; and iv) on-the-ground implementation of EbA.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/fp174gcf
2019-2021LiberiaUNDPMonrovia Metropolitan Climate Resilience Project

C4 led the development of a Funding Proposal, which was submitted to the GCF and approved in March 2021. The project objective is to increase the adaptive capacity and resilience of coastal communities in Monrovia to the impacts of climate change, particularly coastal erosion, and sea-level rise. Project activities include designing and constructing a rock revetment to defend the West Point community against coastal erosion and storms, increasing institutional capacity and providing policy support for the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, protecting mangroves and strengthening gender- and climate-sensitive livelihoods.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/fp160gcf
2019-2021BotswanaConservation InternationalEcosystem and livelihoods resiliency: climate change risk reduction through ecosystem-based adaptation in Botswanas communal rangelands

C4 led the development of Feasibility Studies and provided additional guidance and support precipitation expected to further reduce the quality and quantity of forage of these ecosystems. The associated impacts are likely to be most strongly felt by Botswanas vulnerable rural populations, who are dependent on communal rangelands for pastoralism. The objective of the project is to reduce the vulnerability of communal livestock farmers by restoring rangelands, enabling and monitoring climate-resilient pastoralism and promoting sustainable value chains.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/fp158gcf
2019-2021TanzaniaUNEP (in partnership with UNHCR)Climate resilient development in refugee camps and host communities in Kigoma region, Tanzania

C4 led the finalisation of a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for GCF-funded climate change adaptation in three UNHCR refugee camps and their host communities in Kigoma region, Tanzania. The projects outcomes include i) climate-resilient camp and village land-use planning; ii) land-use and forestry to restore degraded ecosystems and enhance the resilience of ecosystem services; iii) resilient agriculture and livelihood diversification; and iv) dissemination and mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into policies, plans and strategies in Tanzania and humanitarian programmes supported by UNHCR. C4s work on this project includes further developing the analysis of the Feasibility Study and sustainability of the projects approach. Moreover, C4 is conducting climate and hydrological modelling, as well as producing a climate risk assessment to inform project design and implementation. We also coordinated remote consultations in September 2020, providing training to field officers and incorporating findings of the ground truthing and validation mission.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/21880gcf
2020-2021Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Department of Environment Supporting the transition to a low-carbon and resilient economy in Antigua and Barbuda through the Just Transition of the Workforce

C4 led the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. The Government of Antigua and Barbuda is developing and implementing several projects that aims to transition the countrys energy sector away from a climate-vulnerable fossil fuel-dependent electricity grid towards a climate-resilient grid powered by 100% renewable energy. This transition, while necessary, risks undermining the livelihoods of workers in fossil fuel-dependent and downstream industries that support, inter alia, electricity generation and road transportation. The project will initiate a Just Transition of the Workforce to reduce these potential risks to livelihoods and ensure that all affected workers can maintain an acceptable standard of living both during and after the energy sector transition. This shift will be achieved by providing skills and capacity-development initiatives, facilitating access to financial resources and creating a knowledge-sharing system. Best practices and lessons learned for implementing a Just Transition of the Workforce will be generated and disseminated by the knowledge management system to promote the scaling and replication of this project across the Caribbean region.

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2020-2021TuvaluUNDPTuvalu Climate Change Adaptation Project (TCAP)

C4 led the Interim Evaluation (IE) of this GCF-financed project. The project’s primary focus is to put robust coastal protection measures in place in the three islands of Funafuti, Nanumea, and Nanumaga, and build institutional- and community-level capacities to prepare for the impact of increasingly intensive wave actions in the country. The objective of the IE is to assess the implementation of TCAP and its alignment with the Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) obligations and progress towards achieving the project objectives, outcomes and results as specified in the Funding Proposal. The evaluation assessed early signs of project success or failure, with the goal of identifying the necessary changes required to set the project on track to achieve its intended results.

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2020-2021ZimbabweUNICEFFostering food and nutrition security in rural areas of Zimbabwe in the context of climate change and variability through an integrated climate-smart agriculture and WASH approach

C4 led the development of a Concept Note and Pre-feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project, which focuses on the impacts of climate change on the access of vulnerable communities in rural Zimbabwe to fresh water for agriculture, sanitation and hygiene. The objective of the proposed project is to strengthen the food and nutrition security of vulnerable communities under changing climate conditions through an integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach. Project activities include: i) establishing a framework for integrated water resource management to strengthen the linkages between CSA and WASH; ii) improving water-use efficiency and production in agriculture through the implementation of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions; and iii) enhancing nutrition and dietary outcomes by improving access to clean water for domestic use, sanitation and hygiene.

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2021Barbados, Belize, Guyana, Saint Lucia, SurinameCARICOM Development FundTransforming finance to unlock climate action in the Caribbean

C4 led the development of a GCF Simplified Approval Process Funding Proposal to support the CARICOM Development Funds Credit Risk Abatement Facility (CRAF), which provides guarantees on loans to enable small and medium enterprises in the Caribbean region to implement renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE/EE) projects. The GCF project aims to upscale the technical assistance facility within the CRAF programme to support the development of bankable RE/EE projects and build the capacity of financiers to evaluate projects and meet the demand for finance in the energy sector.

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2021Eswatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe UNDPResilience of water-agricultural systems in Southern Africa under climate change

C4 developed a Pre-feasibility Study for this UNDP-funded project for Eswatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The project focuses on climate-resilient regenerative agriculture, as well as improved coordination and governance in watersheds to build resilience to the impacts of climate change on the water and agricultural sector in the SADC region. Project activities include: i) developing partnerships and institutional capacity to support climate-resilient regenerative agriculture in the five target countries; ii) improving access to water through watershed restoration activities; iii) integrating sustainably-produced food into supply chains; and iv) strengthening monitoring and evaluation methods to ensure that implementation of climate-resilient, regenerative agricultural practices is adaptive and context-appropriate.

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2015-2022GhanaUNEPClimate-resilient landscapes for sustainable livelihoods in northern Ghana

C4 is developing a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. This project aims to enhance the climate-resilience of smallholder farming communities in northern Ghana by improving food security and growing the agro-based rural economy.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/document/climate-resilient-landscapes-sustainable-livelihoods-northern-ghanagcf
Ongoing since 2017EswatiniUNEPImproving climate resilience in Eswatini through the integrated management of mountain ecosystems

C4 led the development of a Concept Note, Pre-feasibility Study and Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project and is currently developing the full Funding Proposal for submission to the GCF. The project aims to strengthen the climate resilience of mountain catchments in the Kingdom of Eswatini by implementing a climate-resilient integrated catchment management approach, which incorporates EbA and ecosystem-based businesses for local communities.

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2018-2022CameroonUNEPStrengthening Cameroons capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Cameroon to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Cameroon and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

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2018-2022VanuatuUNEPMalekula Water Supply Project: Increase Resilience of Vulnerable and Marginalised Communities of Malekula Island through Integrated Water Resource Management and Ecosystem-based Interventions

C4 led the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. Climate change in Vanuatu is reducing the availability of fresh water, with groundwater becoming increasingly saline because of sea-level rise (SLR) and a greater frequency of droughts. This has a considerable impact on the lives and livelihoods of vulnerable rural communities. The project aims to address these impacts by creating a climate-resilient water supply system on Malekula, shifting the development pathway away from small, decentralised systems, which are vulnerable to climate change, towards larger centralised systems that are more climate-resilient. To achieve this objective, the project will use GCF funds to invest in adaptation interventions that: i) create an enabling environment for sustainable water management at the national, provincial and community levels; ii) improve the climate resilience of water supply infrastructure, including emergency supplies; and iii) enhance the climate resilience of catchment management to improve hydrological flow, particularly around primary extraction points.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/22710gcf
2018-2022JordanUNEPJordan Integrated Landscape Management Initiative (JILMI)

C4 developed a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCFfunded project, which aims to increase the resilience of vulnerable communities in the Jordan Rift Valley to the adverse impacts of climate change, including the increased frequency and intensity of extreme climate events, such as droughts and floods. The strategy is to achieve this objective through Integrated Landscape Management (ILM) across the following five ecosystems: forest, wadi, marine, rangelands and agriculture.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/document/jordan-integrated-landscape-management-initiative-jilmigcf
2018-2022YemenUNEPBuilding capacity to advance National Adaptation Plan Process in Yemen

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Yemen to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Yemen and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

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2018-2022Republic of SeychellesUNEPBuilding capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process in the Seychelles

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Seychelles to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing the NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the Seychelles country team and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing full NAP Readiness packages for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

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2018-2022Republic of the MaldivesUNEPAdvancing the National Adaptation Planning process in the Maldives

C4 developed NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of the Republic of the Maldives, which was approved by the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in the Maldives and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

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2019-2022SudanUNEPStrengthening Climate Service and Multi-hazard Early Warning for Resilience in Sudan

C4 led the development of a Simplified Approval Process Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project, which focuses on increasing resilience in the agricultural and disaster-risk management sectors in Sudan by developing user-focused climate services and a multi-hazard early warning system. Project activities include: i) strengthening national climate services, supported by coordination, a financial framework, a sustainable business model and a climate information system; ii) modernising hydro-meteorological services for enhanced risk detection, monitoring, analysis and impact-based forecasting; iii) enhancing dissemination and communication of multi-hazard risk information and early warning; and iv) improving preparedness and response capabilities to climate risks.

GCFwww.greenclimate.fund/project/21170gcf
2019-2022VietnamUNDPImproving the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change related impacts in Vietnam

C4 provided technical advisory services for this GCF-funded project, which aims to contribute to increased climate-resilient sustainable development in Vietnam by ensuring more climate-resilient homes, regenerating mangroves and improving disaster-risk planning through the integration of climate-risk information. Specifically, C4 fulfilled the role of a soil specialist, supporting the implementation of the projects Erosion Control Sediment Framework, social and safeguards adherence and monitoring for the mangrove regeneration component. The work included developing workplans and national consultant TORs, providing technical inputs and supporting the finalisation of reports and training materials developed by technical consultants.

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2019-2022Republic of VanuatuUNEPEnhancing Adaptation Actions through the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) of Vanuatu

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of the Republic of Vanuatu, which was submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Vanuatu and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

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2019-2022South SudanUNEPDevelopment of the South Sudan National Adaptation Plan

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of South Sudan to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in South Sudan and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

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2019-2022Commonwealth of DominicaUNEPDeveloping Climate Resilient Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Dominica

C4 developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, of which the objective is to build the resilience of communities situated on the exposed west coast of Dominica to climate change impacts, particularly major hurricanes. Project activities include: i) providing support to the Ocean Governance Committee (OGC) to implement national-level adaptation plans and Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plans (ICZMP); ii) implementing coastal protection measures in vulnerable communities; and iii) implementing EbA measures.

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2019-2022Syrian Arab RepublicUNEPBuilding capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning Process in Syria

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic, that was submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) providing guidance and oversight in the initial development of the draft; ii) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; iii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Syria and UNEP; iv) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; and v) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF.

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2020-2022TogoGWP-WAStrengthening the climate resilience of vulnerable communities in Togo through climate responsive IWRM and WASH

C4 led the development of a Pre-feasibility Study for this GCF project, which is being developed for Togo by UNDP, UNICEF and GWP. The project aims to increase the resilience of selected rural and vulnerable local communities in the Savanes and Kara regions to manage the risks and impacts of climate change on Togos water and sanitation (WASH) services and rural livelihoods. Project activities include i) securing access to clean and safe water supply and sanitation; ii) mitigating the adverse impacts of floods on infrastructure, including water supply and sanitation facilities; and iii) improving rural livelihoods with a climate-resilient agriculture value chain.

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2020-2022NepalUNDPProtecting livelihoods and assets at risk from climate change induced flooding in glacial river basins of Nepal

C4 led the development of a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project, which focuses on safeguarding the lives, livelihoods and physical and economic assets of ~300,000 people in Nepal from the climate-induced threats of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and rain-induced flooding. The project aims to achieve this objective by adopting a comprehensive and integrated multi-hazard watershed-based approach to managing the risk of GLOFs, resulting in strengthened institutional, technical and financial capacity to develop and implement long-term GLOF and multi-hazard management strategies. These strategies include a combination of structural and non-structural (ecosystem-based) measures to protect communities and improve natural ecosystem function, as well as strengthened early warning and emergency response systems to provide forecasts and early warnings to at-risk populations.

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2020-2022IndonesiaUNEPIntegrated watershed management in the Benanain, Tono and Noel Besi watersheds of Indonesia

C4 led the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which focuses on building the resilience of ecosystems and rural communities in the Benanain, Tono and Noel Besi watersheds to future climate change impacts. Project activities include: i) developing an integrated watershed management system; ii) implementing climate-resilient water source conservation practices; iii) introducing water-resource management frameworks for both domestic and agricultural users; and iv) operationalising a knowledge-management system to support effective climate change adaptation planning and water conservation.

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2020-2022HaitiUNDPEnhanced climate resilience in the Trois-Rivieres region of Haiti through integrated flood management

C4 led the development of a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCF project in Haiti, which focuses on transforming the Government of Haitis approach to addressing climate change-induced flooding in seven target communes in the Trois-Rivieres (TR) watershed, namely Port-de-Paix, Chansolme, Bassin Bleu, Plaisance, Pilate, Marmelade and Gros Morne. The project aims to achieve this transformation by i) implementing agroforestry systems and reforesting degraded landscapes at priority intervention sites in the TR watershed; ii) enhancing technical and institutional capacity for productive climate-resilient land management at the national and local levels; and iii) establishing the required governance framework for integrated water resources management (IWRM) to support the climate-resilient land management systems and facilitate sustainable use and management of water resources over the long term.

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2020-2022Republic of The GambiaUNEPDevelopment of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Readiness Proposal for The Gambia

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of The Gambia to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in The Gambia and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

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2021-2022MauritaniaUNEPStrengthening the resilience of ecosystems and populations in four regional hubs in northern Mauritania

C4 has led the development of a Funding Proposal, Feasibility Study and other supporting annexes for this GCFfunded project. Mauritania is one of the globes most water-scarce counties; only 0.5% of its land area is considered arable, with large areas of land subjected to high levels of degradation. Climate change exacerbates these challenges, intensifying the rate of desertification as the Sahara Desert continues to extend southward. The resulting impacts place pressure on fragile oases in the Sahara, which serve as regional hubs that are becoming complex rural-urban hybrids. This project aims to increase the resilience of communities in four regional hubs situated in an area where desertification is most severe while concurrently slowing the rate of desertification.

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2021-2022CambodiaUNDPIntegrated Water Management in Vulnerable Communities around Tonle Sap Lake

C4 led the development of a Concept Note and Pre-feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project, which focuses on supporting water access, crop productivity and the rural livelihoods of 300 climate-vulnerable farming villages in Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake area where climate change has caused shifts in seasonal hydrological flow, more intense flooding events and increasingly frequent and intense droughts. Project activities include: i) enhancing resilience by expanding water resource information systems (WRIS) to inform flood and drought simulations for improved crop management and adaptative planning; ii) increasing investment in climate-resilient on-farm water harvesting and irrigation technologies by introducing innovative financial mechanisms; and iii) building the technical capacity of farmers and technical experts to design, install, operate and maintain these technologies.

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2021-2022KenyaUNEPEnhancing Land-based Adaptation and Resilient Green Economies in Makueni, Kajiado, Machakos and Kitui Counties in Kenya

C4 has developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which focuses on the adaptation of vulnerable farming communities in the South East Kenya Economic Bloc to droughts and floods through investments in climate-resilient agriculture, ecosystem restoration and agricultural value chains. Project activities include: i) enhancing climate-smart practices; ii) transforming rural livelihoods through climate-smart land-based enterprises; iii) enhancing policies and climate information systems for adaptation and resilience-building; and iv) developing innovative financial mechanisms for sustainable investment in adaptation.

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2021-2022South AfricaGWPDesertification, land degradation, land cover change and drought in South Africa

C4 provided technical reviews and copy-writing and editing services to the Global Water Partnership for the development of a Pre-feasibility Study for this GCF project. The project aims to address climate change-induced land degradation, declining soil fertility, unreliable rainfall and desertification in South Africa by facilitating the adoption of sustainable resource management practices in the country. To achieve this, the project proposes a WEF-nexus (water, energy and food security) approach to shift South Africa toward integrated and climate-resilient planning at the national and sub-national level. Such planning will particularly focus on the preservation and rehabilitation of critical ecosystems that underpin food, water and energy security in South Africa.

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2021-2022NigeriaUNDPClimate Risk-Informed Coastal Planning and Risk Reduction for a Resilient Lagos

C4 led the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which focuses on building the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities and livelihoods in Lagos State to the impacts of climate hazards. The project aims to enable Lagos to move away from unsustainable development patterns and integrate climate-risk information into decision-making and land-use planning in high-risk coastal zones. Project activities include: i) developing risk-informed climate adaptation planning for Lagos States coastal zone; ii) providing technical assistance to gain financing for continued climate adaptation in Lagos State; iii) catalysing investment in infrastructure to sustainably protect vulnerable coastal communities from damage caused by inland flooding and coastal inundation; and iv) building the resilience of coastal urban and peri-urban livelihoods in the most vulnerable communities.

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2022KenyaUNEPSource to Sea: Enhancing blue carbon ecosystems and community resilience in Kenya

C4 developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which focuses on a Source-to-Sea framework for building the resilience of coastal communities to climate change impacts through the restoration and conservation of coastal ecosystems, focusing on small-scale fishing communities in several sites along the coast of Kenya. Project activities include i) addressing upstream sources of erosion and sedimentation that are impacting coastal communities; ii) restoring and conserving coastal ecosystems through community-based initiatives; iii) diversifying and supporting community livelihoods to improve climate resilience; and iv) implementing sustainable finance mechanisms to ensure the longevity of interventions.

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2022Sultanate of OmanUNEPDevelopment of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Readiness Proposal for the Sultanate of Oman

C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Sultanate of Oman to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and to catalyse large-scale investments from other funding sources. C4s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Oman and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.

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2022-2023South AfricaPegasysScaling up ecosystem-based approaches to managing climate-intensified disaster risks in vulnerable regions of South Africa

C4 assisted in the Pegasys-led development of a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project, which aims to promote and implement ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction approaches to floods, droughts and wildfires in selected target areas in South Africa. To complete the Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study, C4 is collaborating with other consultancies and individuals including the Institute of Natural Resources and Zutari Specifically, C4s role includes developing the project logical framework, the monitoring and evaluation framework, project-level indicators and the Funding Proposal document. Part of this role includes close communication with the other project development members and the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) who is the Accredited Entity to provide input in strategic decisions and to relay information requirements for the drafting of the Funding Proposal.

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Ongoing since 2021Bahamas, Barbados, Dominican Republic, Saint LuciaTNCOperation Coastal Resilience: Innovative Financing of Nature-based Coastal Resilience in the Caribbean

C4 is leading the development of a GCF Concept Note to facilitate access to Innovative Finance Mechanisms for nature-based solutions (NbS) in Caribbean Small Island Developing States. The four target countries Bahamas, Barbados, Dominican Republic and Saint Lucia are all Caribbean SIDS with extremely high vulnerability to climate change. This vulnerability results from geographic positioning and consequent exposure to climate variables, as well as, inter alia, a high economic dependence on tourism and most of the population and key infrastructure being in coastal regions. The main climate variables impacting these countries are sea-level rise, an increased intensity of coastal storms and hurricanes, greater frequency of storm surge and wave impacts and more intense precipitation events. These climate variables contribute to a variety of climate impacts on both natural and socio-economic systems, including i) coastal erosion; ii) the loss of critical ecosystems such as coral reefs, sea grass beds, wetlands and mangroves; iii) damage to coastal infrastructure; iv) undermined productivity of fisheries and agricultural businesses; v) reduced food security; vi) health impacts; vii) reduced tourism productivity. The proposed project will introduce a range of NBS in affected coastal areas in each of the four countries to facilitate greater adaptation to the aforementioned climate impacts. IFS will be identified to finance these interventions, as well as to ensure the long-term sustainability of the project.

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2022-2024Djibouti UNDP Strengthening the Climatic Resilience of Djibouti’s Agro-pastoral Sector through Integrated Water Resources Management

C4 is assisting UNDP in leading the development of the Project Preparation Application (PPF) and full Funding Proposal package for this GCF-funded project. The project will increase the resilience of rural agro-pastoralists across Djibouti to droughts and floods by i) strengthening decentralised and cross-sectoral support for climate-resilient agro-pastoralism; ii) facilitating climate resilience of the agro-pastoral sector to optimise agricultural production and improve the livelihoods of rural communities; and iii) mitigating the projected impacts of more intense precipitation events and floods.

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2023Nepal UNEP Integrated green economy and green job promotion through sustainable forest management in the Terai, Churia Hills and mountains

C4 is developing a Concept Note and Pre-feasibility Study for this proposed GCF-funded project. The project forms part of the priority adaptation programmes for forestry, biodiversity and watershed conservation within Nepals National Adaptation Plan (NAP). As a climate change adaptation project, this project will increase the resilience of forest-based livelihoods to the impact of forest fires, droughts, landslides and flash floods. The preliminary aims of the project are to achieve the following objectives in the forestry sector of Nepal: i) to enhance the capacity of community forestry user groups (CFUGs), private and public agencies to promote a circular green economy associated with forest ecosystems; and ii) for communities to be more resilient to floods, droughts and landslides by adapting agriculture, forestry and settlement practices to the impacts of climate change and by developing income-generating opportunities. Ultimately, this project will support the development of a climate-adaptive green economy in Nepals forestry sector.

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2023-2024Namibia UNESCO Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning System for Enhanced Adaptation Planning and Resilience in Namibia

C4 is assisting with the development of a GCF Funding Proposal for the project entitled Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning System for Enhanced Adaptation Planning and Resilience in Namibia. The project will be submitted via the Simplified Approval Process (SAP) and is being developed in collaboration with several Namibia-based UN offices, including UNESCO, UNDP and WFP. Specifically, C4 will provide assistance with the development of the Funding Proposal package by creating the: i) Pre-feasibility Study; ii) Logical Framework; iii) Timetable; iv) Budget; v) Risk Assessment and Management; and vi) Operations and Maintenance Manual. Moreover, C4 will contribute to stakeholder engagements and the drafting of the Funding Proposal itself. The projects main goal is to improve the resilience of Namibian communities by enhancing climate information and early warning systems. This will be achieved by: i) strengthening the observation, monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the climate and its impacts; ii) developing an enabling environment for effective delivery and sustainability of weather and climate information services; iii) strengthening national climate risk management and coordination capacity; iv) enhancing climate risk information and advisory products and services; v) applying innovative technology and private sector inclusion in early warning and early action; and vi) developing a model for the application of Climate Information and Early Warning Systems (CIEWS) in resilient food and water security.

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2023-2024LebanonUNEPEnhancing climate information services and impact-based multi-hazard early warning in Lebanon

C4 is developing a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project aimed at increasing Lebanons resilience to climate-related hazards such as droughts, floods, landslides and fires. The project is designed to establish a people-centred, impact-based multi-hazard early warning system (MHEWS), enhancing Lebanons abilities to monitor, predict, prevent and effectively respond to climate-related extreme events. Project outcomes will be realised by: i) establishing a National Framework for Climate Services and Disaster Risk Knowledge; ii) improving the detection, monitoring, analysis and forecasting of hazards; iii) ensuring warning dissemination and communication; and iv) strengthening preparedness capabilities.

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2008UgandaICECAPReport on the Namwasa Forestation Project

C4 EcoSolutions reviewed the Namwasa Forestation Project with regards to the proposed CDM methodology, the Project Design Document (PDD), the delivery of VERs, inherent risks, best practice and regulatory issues specific to the AFOLU market.

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2008-2011ZambiaAfrican Carbon ExchangeCarbon credit earning potential for REDD+ activities in the Sichifulo and Lupande Game Management Area, Zambia

C4 assessed the financial and ecological viability of REDD+ activities in Zambia. The project focused on the potential of obtaining greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from forest protection in the project areas. This included preparing a detailed Project Idea Note (PIN) and undertaking carbon stock assessments of the project areas.

Carboncarbon
2008-2011BotswanaAfrican Carbon ExchangeCarbon credit earning potential for REDD+ activities in NG8 and the NG26 Wildlife Management Area, Botswana

C4 assessed the financial and ecological viability of a REDD+ project in northern Botswana. The project focused on the potential of obtaining greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from forest protection in the project areas. This included preparing a detailed Project Idea Note (PIN) and undertaking carbon stock assessments of the project areas.

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2010ZambiaUNDP, UNEP and FAOUN collaborative programme on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries

C4 developed a Project Document for this UN-REDD project. The project prepared Zambian institutions and stakeholders for nationwide implementation of the REDD+ mechanism. The objectives of the project included: i) building institutional and stakeholder capacity to implement REDD+; ii) developing policies for REDD+; iii) developing REDD+ benefit-sharing models; and iv) developing measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems for REDD+.

Carboncarbon
2010ZimbabweICECAPThe Nyatana REDD project: a Feasibility Study

C4 assessed the feasibility of the Nyatana REDD project. This was a desktop study based on a report by Neutral Futures. The project was said to be entirely viable from the information provided, however, it was suggested that the calculations of potential VER generation be adjusted and recommendations were provided on how to achieve this.

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2010-2011South AfricaFood & Trees for AfricaPeri-urban bamboo planting around South African townships

C4 developed the Project Documentation for the project in South Africa, which was validated through the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) in 2011. This project, and the Tree Planting in South African Townships project, were the first urban greening projects in Africa to be validated by the VCS. The project involved establishing a bamboo plantation on the outskirts of selected townships. A community harvesting programme was designed, whereby mature bamboo culms were harvested annually after the third year.

Carbonmer.markit.com/br-reg/public/project.jsp?project_id=100000000000851carbon
2010-2011South AfricaFood & Trees for AfricaTree planting in South African townships

C4 developed a Project Documentation for this project in South Africa, which was validated through the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) in 2011. This project, and the Peri-urban bamboo planting around South African townships project, were the first urban greening projects in Africa to be validated by the VCS. The project generated carbon credits (Verified Emission Reductions, VERs) by planting trees in townships where communities did not have the financial resources available to do this.

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2011-2012ZambiaUNDPStrengthening management effectiveness and generating multiple environmental benefits within and around protected areas in Zambia

C4 developed two Technical Reports for this GEF-funded project in Zambia, namely: i) a stocktaking report to assess the feasibility of REDD+ in Game Management Areas around Kafue National Park; and ii) a stocktaking report to estimate potential GHG reductions by promoting woodlots and efficient charcoal kilns in Game Management Areas around Zambian Protected Areas.

Carbonwww.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/4639carbon
2013Sierre LeoneUK-based private sector clientPre-baseline Feasibility Study for a REDD+ project in Sierra Leone

C4 undertook a Feasibility Study in support of a REDD+ project for a UK-based private sector client. This included extensive literature reviews, remote consultations with local stakeholders and assessments of satellite imagery to determine historical rates of deforestation and degradation.

Carboncarbon
2013South AfricaCredible CarbonSpier mob-grazing carbon audit

C4 undertook an audit of greenhouse gas emissions on a privately-owned farm in South Africa practicing improved land management techniques. The audit was conducted in support of the project documentation for an independent carbon credit certification scheme.

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2013-2018South AfricaGovernment of South AfricaAddo Elephant National Park, Baviaanskloof Nature Reserve and Great Fish River Nature Reserve Restoration Project (ABFRP)

Anthony Mills was involved in the ABFRP as a scientific advisor from the start of the project in 2003. C4 has contributed to the project by developing the project documentation, restoration protocols and Standard Operating Procedures, and continued to be involved in a technical advisory capacity. This project was the first validated Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) project under the 2007.1 Standard in Africa to restore indigenous forest/thicket in a semi-desert, and only the 19th Agriculture, Forestry and Land-Use project to be validated worldwide. At least 5,300 ha of degraded thicket was expected to be restored by planting cuttings of the indigenous thicket tree Portulacaria afra (spekboom).

https://www.reddprojectsdatabase.org/view/project.php?id=414
https://www.climate-standards.org/2010/10/19/working-for-woodlands-thicket-restoration-project/

CarbonSee abovecarbon
Ongoing since 2013South AfricaKuzuko Lodge Private Game ReserveKuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve Thicket Restoration Project

C4 developed this project and facilitated its validation under the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA). The project, which received CCBA Gold status, involves undertaking ecosystem restoration in the Kuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Degraded thicket ecosystems were restored by planting cuttings of the indigenous thicket tree Portulacaria afra (spekboom). The restoration process sequesters large quantities of atmospheric carbon into soils and plants, and sales from carbon credits will fund the restoration process. The project is currently under implementation.

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2015-2019South AfricaReliance CompostReliance Composting Project

C4 developed the Project Description Document which was validated and verified under the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS). This project sought to: i) enable Reliance Composting to generate Verified Carbon Units (VCUs) through the aerobic composting of garden and park waste; ii) reduce methane emissions by preventing the anaerobic decay of garden and park waste (average emissions reductions of ~50,000 tCO2e/yr); and iii) promote the financial sustainability of Reliance Composting by enabling the sale of VCUs on the voluntary carbon market.

Carbonwww.vcsprojectdatabase.org/#/project_details/1817carbon
2017-2018, 2017-2018South Africa, South AfricaGIZ and the Government of South Africa, GIZ and the Government of South AfricaDeveloping rules/manual for greenhouse gas emissions and sinks accounting, measurement, reporting and verification procedures for the grassland, reduced/zero till and soil systems in South Africa in preparation for the imminent carbon offsetting regime

C4, in partnership with the Copperleaf Consortium, developed detailed greenhouse gas emission and sinks accounting guidelines for South Africa. These guidelines were used for carbon offsetting and net emissions reporting in the South African Carbon Tax Regime. Specifically, the project detailed appropriate GHG accounting rules, and developed monitoring, reporting and verification (MPV) guidelines. In doing so, the project assessed whether the management of grasslands and reduced/zero-till agricultural systems reduced carbon emissions.

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2020KenyaTASCMount Kenya Landscape Conservation Trust REDD+

C4 undertook a Pre-feasibility Studyfor this REDD+ project under the VCS and CCB Standards. The project is focused on reducing the rate of deforestation and forest degradation in and around Mt Kenya National Park, Aberdare National Park, Ngare Ndare Forest Reserve, Timau Forest Reserve and Marmanet Forest Reserve. Activities to achieve these deforestation goals include: i) increasing the number of local residents trained and employed as forest rangers; ii) improvements to the surveillance and communication protocols used by ranger patrols and law enforcement; iii) the development of pre-emptive fire management practices; iv) the provision of agricultural and livestock support services to reduce the pressure on forest resources; v) the re-establishment of habitat connectivity and wildlife corridors to reduce human wildlife conflict; vi) enhancing water management capacity management agreements, monitoring and enforcement to reduce the downstream impacts that result in greater reliance on forest resources and ecosystems; and vii) greater engagement with community forestry associations, water resource user associations, local government and law enforcement to support awareness, conservation and management of forest resources.

Carboncarbon
2020-2021South AfricaTASC and Meat Naturally AfricaDrakensberg Sub-Escarpment Grouped Livestock Carbon Programme

C4 undertook a Pre-feasibility Study for this livestock carbon project under the VCS and CCB Standards. The assessment focused on the mitigation potential in communal rangeland of Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa by adopting improved land and livestock management practices under the Herding for Health model. The sources of emission reductions and removals include: i) avoiding the loss of soil carbon; ii) the increased sequestration of soil carbon; and iii) the reduction of methane production through enteric fermentation. The potential of achieving these mitigation outcomes were modelled based on a combination of remotely sensed data and field observations to construct a biogeochemical model of the equilibrium soil carbon stocks and using IPCC Tier 2 inventories. Additional co-benefits of the project include the increased resilience of vulnerable and rural livelihoods, increased species and structural heterogeneity of the landscape, biodiversity benefits, active clearing of alien invasive plants, active management of bush encroachment and improved catchment management with associated water benefits.

Carboncarbon
2010-2023Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Nigeria, Madagascar, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland, Namibia, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, Mexico, Guatemala, Uganda, Asia, Angola, Botswana, Burundi, South Sudan, The Gambia, Indonesia, Philippines, Timor Leste, Sri Lanka, Chad, Togo, Ivory Coast and Flores IslandC-Quest Capital, ICECAP, CO2balance, Korea Carbon Offsets Ltd, mkaarbon safari GmbH, BURN Manufacturing Co., INTRACO Carbon, SIPCO, Livelihoods Fund, Guangzhou Iceberg Environmental Consulting Services Co., Ltd, TASC and Iceberg Environment PTE. LtdDetermination of the national fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB)

C4 is developing technical reports (~75 so far) that quantify the fraction of non-renewable biomass at a national level. These reports contribute to the development of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) emission reduction projects that aim to reduce fuelwood consumption. Such projects achieve this by distributing improved cooking stoves to households using fuelwood as a primary energy source. This also reduces deforestation and forest degradation, improves health outcomes and support sustainable development.

Weblinks:
https://cquestcapital.com/
http://www.icecapltd.com/
http://www.co2balance.com/
http://www.korea-carbon.com/
https://www.mkaarbonsafari.com/
https://burnstoves.com/
https://www.carbonvietnam.com/
https://livelihoods.eu/
http://icebergchina.com/en/index.html
https://tasc.je/

CarbonSee abovecarbon
2020ZimbabweRift Valley Corporation and Zambezi Elephant FundCharara Safari Area REDD+

C4 completed a Pre-feasibility Studyfor this REDD+ project under the VCS and CCB Standards. The project is focused on reducing the net GHG emission reductions and removals that occur as a result of unplanned, destructive, late-season fires in the Charara Safari Area. The aim of this project is to generate benefits in the areas of climate, community and biodiversity under both the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB) standards.

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2020-2021ZimbabweRift Valley Corporation Rift Valley Corporation Scope 1 and 2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Assessment

C4 completed a greenhouse gas emissions accounting study for the Rift Valley Corporation to determine their carbon footprint and opportunities for mitigating actions. The assessment was conducted using the GHG Protocol Scope 1 and 2 Standards, Tools and Guidance.

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2021South AfricaCredible CarbonGrootbos Private Nature Reserve Carbon Project

C4 completed an audit of greenhouse gas emissions on a privately-owned nature reserve practicing improved land management techniques, solid waste recycling, green waste composting and renewable energy generation. This audit aimed to determine the veracity of the carbon claims publicly made by the project and to verify the merits of the activities implemented across the verification period (20182020).

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2021-2022ZimbabweOppenheimer GenerationsShangani Holistic Climate Positive Beef

C4 completed a Carbon Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) of beef production at the Shangani Ranch in central Zimbabwe. The objective of the analysis was to establish the baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across each lifecycle phase, to identify the level of action required to achieve carbon neutral beef production. The aim of this assessment was to identify the lifecycle stages that produce the highest emissions and the width of the gap to reach carbon neutrality.

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2021-2022NigeriaCarbon-Plus Capital LLP (CPC)Living Carbon Jigawa: Agribusiness Pilot Intervention on Regenerative Farming, Jigawa State, Nigeria

C4 completed a REDD+ Pre-feasibility Study for the Partnering for Accelerated Transitions (PACT)-funded project being developed by CPC and other members of a consortium of stakeholders known as the LINKSPowering Economic Growth in Northern Nigeria Programme. The study focused on: i) determining which voluntary carbon methodologies would be appropriate for regenerative agriculture interventions in the project area; and ii) the likely carbon returns from increases in soil organic matter over a 30-year period.

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2022IndonesiaOgilvy WatsonKapuas/South Barito REDD+ project in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

C4 completed a Scoping Study of the Kapuas/South Barito REDD+ project in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The primary objective was to determine the potential for carbon credit generation within the project site. The scoping was guided by the framework of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). Specifically, we provided an analysis on potential carbon offsetting methodologies, estimated the potential carbon sequestration that could result from implemented restoration practices, provided a detailed spatial analysis for the area, evaluated non-permanence risk, additionality and leakage and reviewed the proposed project budget.

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2022Across AfricaSpace for GiantsScoping Studies for Space for Giants

C4 led the development of 25 Scoping Studies across Africa to determine the potential for implementing carbon sequestration projects. The objectives for each Scoping Study were to: i) quantify land use classes for each landscape; ii) identify broad historical trends from satellite data; iii) estimate carbon flux and carbon storage per hectare with and without project interventions; iv) identify significant factors influencing carbon storage potential; and v) estimate the potential for carbon credit generation at each site given a range of future scenarios and project interventions.

Carbonwww.spaceforgiants.orgcarbon
Ongoing since 2022South AfricaAfriCarbon Pty Ltd and ReforestActionSpekboom thicket restoration project

C4 is supporting AfriCarbon and ReforestAction in implementing one of the largest restoration projects in the world. The project will plant >25 million Portulacaria afra (spekboom) cuttings to restore 5,000 ha of degraded thicket landscapes in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. C4s involvement includes scientific advisory services on quantifying rates of carbon sequestration and return of biodiversity.

Carbonwww.africarbon.co.za/carbon
2022NamibiaVeles Water LimitedNamibian woodland restoration in Eden Nature Reserve

C4 completed a Scoping Study of the Eden Nature Reserve restoration project near Grootfontein, Namibia. The primary objective was to determine the potential for carbon credit generation within the project site. The scoping was guided by the methodologies for sustainable and improved grassland management. Specifically, we provided an analysis of potential Verra Verified Carbon Standard methodologies, estimated the potential carbon sequestration that could result from restoration practices and evaluated non-permanence risk, additionality and leakage.

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2022Rwanda, Ghana, Tanzania, Togo, China, India, Peru and MexicoReforestActionScoping Studies for ReforestAction

C4 led the development of 10 Scoping Studies across Africa, Asia and Latin America to determine the potential for implementing carbon sequestration projects. The objectives for each Scoping Study were to: i) quantify land use classes for each landscape; ii) identify broad historical trends from satellite data; iii) estimate carbon sequestration potential primarily for afforestation, reforestation and revegetation activities using the Ex-Ante Carbon Balance Tool; and iv) identify significant factors influencing carbon storage potential. These studies helped ReforestAction decide whether a project proposed by a project developer was worth pursuing. Assessed landscapes included degraded forests, agricultural land and mangroves.

Carbonwww.reforestaction.comcarbon
2022IndonesiaZero Carbon Forestry Management Pte LtdMangrove REDD+ project in Riau Province

C4 supported Zero Carbon Forestry Management by conducting a carbon assessment for a mangrove restoration project in Riau, Indonesia. The assessment included the following activities: i) landscape profile analyses; ii) a review of Verra methodologies; iii) the identification and application of Verra tools and modules to quantify additionality and non-permanence risk; iv) carbon modelling to estimate potential verified carbon units; and v) a literature review to determine the likely carbon returns in comparison to the modelled carbon results.

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2022-2023Kenya and EthiopiaSumitomo CorporationSumitomo Corporation, Kernel Scoping Study

Sumitomo Corporation Group (Sumitomo) is developing a business plan for Kernel, a platform that will connect smallholder farmers to the voluntary carbon market by improving agricultural land management practices within target countries. C4 validated Sumitomos assumptions and assessed the feasibility of the Kernel business plan. Specifically, C4: i) analysed Kernel documentation; ii) identified projects with similar objectives to the Sumitomo project; iii) identified potential project focal areas; iv) reviewed voluntary mechanisms and recommended the most suitable options; v) reviewed methodologies and advised which to apply for the project activities; vi) assessed the potential feasibility of digital monitoring, reporting and verification procedures; vii) provided a detailed breakdown of costs relating to the implementation of the project; viii) assessed the feasibility of using digital technology by farmers in Africa; and ix) reviewed the technical, financial and regulatory aspects of the project.

Carbonwww.sumitomocorp.com/en/jpcarbon
2023RwandaReforest'ActionBuilding resilience to climate change and sustainable agriculture value chains in agro-systems around Mukura Forest and Lake Kivu Catchment Landscape, Western Rwanda

C4 completed a Feasibility Study for Reforest’Action to design and implement a carbon project for the Albertine Rift Conservation Society (ARCOS Network) in Rwanda, East Africa. The project area is situated around the Mukura natural forest and will cover the Rutsiro District and a small part of the Ngororero District. The project aims to restore the degraded landscape and create sustainable value chains for timber, coffee, tea and fruit for an expected 30,000 beneficiaries. The C4 team conducted a field mission to: i) consult with stakeholders and community members; ii) investigate landscape dynamics and ensure all carbon pools are considered; iii) consider the feasibility of alternative economic practice; and iv) investigate the opportunities and risks for a carbon project.

Carbonwww.reforestaction.com/carbon
2022Across AfricaSpace for GiantsREDD+ methodology report

C4 developed a methodology report that described the approach followed to calculate possible removed and avoided verified carbon units (VCUs) in the Space for Giants Scoping Studies, providing details on the proposed changes to the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) framework. Specifically, the report included: i) an overview of the REDD+ framework, with definitions of carbon avoidance and carbon removal; ii) the REDD+ project implementations current status; iii) a review of the five REDD+ methodologies; iv) the criticism of the current REDD+ methodologies and proposed future changes to be implemented; v) a review of registered REDD+ projects in Africa; vi) the methods and limitations of the calculations used for avoided and removed VCUs; and vii) suggestions on the way forward for Space for Giants.

Carbonwww.spaceforgiants.org/carbon
2023South Africa WildTrust WildTrust KZN

C4 completed a Scoping Study in the Maputaland region of the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. This project aims to increase carbon sequestration by establishing or restoring vegetative cover, primarily in forests.

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2023South Africa Nature for Justice Marula Carbon Project, Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces, South Africa

C4 completed a Scoping Study that evaluated the potential for carbon credit generation via establishing an agroforestry system focused on planting marula trees in South Africas Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces.

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Ongoing since 2023 Kenya Nature for Justice Kenya carbon sequestration Scoping Study for Nature for Justice

C4 is conducting a Scoping Study to assess the feasibility of a proposed project across four Kenyan counties: Narok, Nyamira, Vihiga, and Kajiado. The study is evaluating the viability of implementing carbon sequestration initiatives within these counties. The objectives are to: i) quantify key components and land use classes within each county; ii) analyse historical trends using satellite data; iii) estimate the carbon sequestration potential using the Ex-Ante Carbon Balance Tool, focusing on reforestation, agroforestry and improved agricultural management practices; iv) and identify key factors influencing carbon storage potential. The findings from this study will provide valuable insights for Nature for Justice in deciding whether to proceed with the project proposed by the Christian Party Development Agency.

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Ongoing since 2023 Zimbabwe Rift Valley Corporation Cicada Carbon Honde Valley, Gairezi and Nyanga National Park, multi-methodology project

C4 is conducting a Feasibility Study for the Rift Valley Corporation in Zimbabwe. The aim is to develop an improved agricultural land management project. The scope of the study will also include a REDD approach in all forested areas in the Honde Valley and Gairezi, as well as the protection of Nyanga National Park. The study is divided into seven components: i) desktop study and project document reviews; ii) stakeholder consultations, fieldwork, remote sensing and data collection; iii) methodology review; iv) carbon modelling; v) additionality, leakage and non-permanence risk assessment; vi) financial analysis; and vii) recommendations for project development and verification. The desktop study examined the project area and identifies potential obstacles, while stakeholder interactions collect field data and identify risks and local requirements. The methodology assessment determines the appropriateness and feasibility of the REDD and VM0042 methods for the project. Carbon modelling uses the Ex-Ante Carbon-balance Tool to predict the carbon sequestration potential and assesses the existing conditions of the project area for potential enhancements.

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Ongoing since 2023 Zimbabwe Rift Valley Corporation Cicada Carbon Biochar Production and Application, Zimbabwe

C4 is conducting a Feasibility Study in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, near Chimanimani, on the production and application of biochar. The study is taking place in collaboration with Border Timbers, a company based in the Rift Valley. The aim is to explore the application of biochar within Border Timbers waste management process and to assess the carbon sequestration and carbon credit value of the biochar. A critical question being addressed is whether creating biochar can reduce methane emissions from a large waste pile and improve soil quality for depleted lands that were previously used for maise farming or forestry. The biochar produced can serve as a long-term carbon sink, potentially earning carbon credits. The objectives for the Feasibility Study are: i) assessing the methodology of the Verra VM0044 method and other methodologies while reviewing other potential methodologies and successful registered biochar projects, ii) carbon modelling using the Ex-Ante Carbon-balance Tool (EX-ACT), iii) assessing additionality, leakage and non-permanence risk, iv) conducting financial analysis and calculating the return on investment, and v) providing recommendations for project development and verification.

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Ongoing since 2023 South Africa Silicon Kruger Save the Sand

C4 is leading a Scoping Study in South Africas Sand River catchment to assess the potential for implementing carbon sequestration projects. These projects aim to not only capture carbon but also restore the water resources in the catchment. The objectives of the Scoping Study are to: i) describe land use classes for each landscape; ii) identify broad historical trends from satellite data; iii) estimate carbon flux and carbon storage per hectare with and without project interventions; iv) identify significant factors influencing carbon storage potential; and v) estimate the potential for carbon credit generation under future scenarios and project interventions.

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Ongoing since 2022 South Africa UNEP, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), UNDP, UNESCO, C4 EcoSolutions (C4ES), Unique land use GmbH (UNIQUE) Restoring landscapes in South Africa (ReLISA): nature-based solutions for climate, biodiversity and people

The objective of ReLISA is to address the landscape-wide degradation of savannas, grasslands and thicket and to substantiate the economic benefits of restoration initiatives. ReLISA is dedicated to fostering a just transition in South Africas land-use sector by creating favourable conditions and mobilising large-scale investment. The initiative seeks to restore degraded landscapes, while recognising the socio-cultural dynamics, economic considerations and complexities of land tenure. Consultative on-the-ground implementation involving stakeholders such as communities, farmers, investors and authorities, will substantially aid in adapting to climate change and reducing biodiversity loss. Moreover, it will enhance the livelihoods of both rural communities and commercial farmers. Targeted capacity development and creating bankable investment opportunities for the private sector will support the upscaling of South Africas restoration efforts, climate objectives, green economy and other environmental targets under the Rio conventions and the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. Along with our implementation partner UNIQUE, C4 is leading the on-the-ground implementation and upscaling of restoration projects in the three biomes by enhancing their appeal to financial intermediaries and impact investors (Output II).

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2023Kenya, Malawi, Madagascar, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Colombia Nature for Justice, Margules Groome Carbon sequestration pre-scoping study for Nature for Justice

C4 led multiple pre-scoping studies for proposed projects in the initial stages of development, where our client is sourcing funds to invest in possible projects. These studies: i) quantified key components and land use classes within each county; ii) analysed historical trends using satellite data; iii) estimated the carbon sequestration potentials using the Ex-Ante Carbon Balance Tool, focusing on reforestation, agroforestry and improved agricultural management practices; iv) and identified key factors influencing carbon storage potential. The findings from these studies inform Nature for Justice when deciding whether to proceed with the projects proposed.

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2023ZimbabweCicada AfricaZimbabwe Cicada CO2 to deforestation calculation

C4 evaluated the quantity of carbon credits that could be generated for an Improved Cookstove (ICS) project. This project, by reducing the demand for wood, aims to offset the impact of deforestation across 1,000 hectares in Northern Zimbabwe. This evaluation encompassed an assessment of the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Zimbabwe, the efficiency of the ICS project, and the fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB).

Carbonwww.cicada.africa/carbon
2023ZimbabweRift Valley CorporationZimbabwe Carbon Footprint Methodology Review

C4 evaluated the methodology used to assess the Corporate Carbon Footprint (CCF) of seven subsidiaries of Rift Valley Corporation for the fiscal years 2022 and 2023, and the projected carbon footprint for 2024. This evaluation encompassed the determination of Scope 1, 2 and 3 carbon dioxide emissions originating from wood combustion, diesel and petrol consumption, and electricity procurement. The review primarily focused on the application of emission factors and the appropriate categorization of emissions within their respective scopes. Additionally, the offset associated with the Border Timer Limited subsidiary was integrated into the assessment.

Carbonwww.thinklocal.co.zw/listing-item/rift-valley-corporation/carbon
2023Cote d'Ivoire Egis One 12 Abidjan Airport Methodology Review Scoping Study

C4 conducted a Scoping Study to determine the most appropriate methodologies for a proposed project in the concession zone of Abidjan Airport, Cote d’Ivoire. This study examined several land uses and proposed activities designed to enhance carbon storage in the local soils and biomass. These activities included mangrove and grassland restoration, improved agricultural land management and the introduction of composting practices. The study evaluated methodologies from the following carbon standards: i) Verra; ii) Gold Standard; iii) Plan Vivo; iv) Social Carbon; and v) CDM.

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Ongoing since 2023 ZimbabweBlue Carbon General Trading LLC Carbon project potential in Zimbabwe

Blue Carbon General Trading LLC (Blue Carbon) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Government of Zimbabwe in 2023, granting the company the right to implement agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) projects on government-owned land. Contracted by Blue Carbon, C4 is conducting a Scoping Study for the potential of carbon projects in Zimbabwe. The aim of the AFOLU project will be to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and removals (ERR) through AFOLU mitigation activities aligning with Zimbabwes Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) targets. The Scoping Study’s primary objectives are to: i) identify potential areas in Zimbabwe eligible for AFOLU project activities; ii) assess the extent of Zimbabwes compliance with Article 6 of the Paris Agreement (PA); and iii) estimate potential ERRs generated from these activities.

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2023Papua New Guinea, Bahamas, Comoros, Saint Lucia and DominicaBlue Carbon General Trading LLC Assessment of green and blue carbon potential through preliminary scoping studies in five island nations

C4 developed five Pre-Scoping Studies for Blue Carbon, assessing the green and blue carbon potential across Papua New Guinea, Bahamas, Comoros, Saint Lucia and Dominica. This assessment examined existing carbon projects within these nations and the landscape dynamics for each, including aspects such as forest loss, productivity, fire frequency, agricultural encroachment, mangrove extent and coral reef extent. The assessment additionally examined the Article 6 readiness of these island nations, identified applicable methodologies and estimated the carbon potential associated with potential activities. A wide-ranging approach was taken, considering aspects of leakage and other potential risks.

Carbonbluecarbon.ae/carbon
2023Zambia Second Mile Foundation Flamponje Community Project

C4 conducted a Scoping Study for a carbon project in the Rufunsa District of Lusaka Province, Zambia. The Flamponje Community Forest Projects primary objective is to curtail ecosystem degradation caused by frequent fires from existing agricultural practices and improve the livelihoods of local communities. Slash-and-burn agriculture, a practice that negatively impacts ecosystems and the climate via greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is prevalent in the area. In response to this, the project strategy is to implement Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) activities, such as improved fire management, agroforestry and enhanced agricultural practices. By adopting the Verra VM0042 methodology for improved agricultural land management, the project also seeks to generate carbon credits.

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2024South AfricaGouritz Cluster Biosphere ReserveProject proposal development for sustainably dealing with the threat of alien invasive vegetation in the Gouritz Cluster Biosphere Reserve.

C4 is preparing a proposal for the Gouritz Cluster Biosphere Reserve (GCBR) for sustainably addressing the threat posed by alien invasive vegetation in the area. The project aims to secure funding from the Bezos Earth Fund or similar entities. A two-phased approach will be taken, starting with an exploratory phase to assess the feasibility of converting invasive alien plants into aviation fuel, bio-bricks, bio-crete and pellets, and exploring biodiversity and carbon credit potential. This first phase will include facilitating workshops, undertaking a Feasibility Study, engaging with experts for technical and financial planning and developing a preliminary business plan. The second phase will refine these plans into a detailed project proposal, enhancing collaboration with stakeholders and securing funder approval. C4 is coordinating these efforts, ensuring alignment with GCBR’s goals and engaging with potential funders to realise this initiative.

Carbongouritz.com/carbon
2023-2024United States of AmericaCoolpath Inc. and Veles Water and Carbon Projects Ltd.Assessment of carbon potential for compost application to Californian rangelands.

C4 developed two Scoping Studies for Coolpath Inc. and Veles Water and Carbon Projects Ltd. that provide a preliminary assessment of the likely effects of annual compost application on soil carbon sequestration over 30 years in degraded Californian rangelands. The work included a detailed literature review, alongside soil sampling and data analysis from a 16-month composting trial undertaken at one of the study areas. The project assessed the feasibility of generating carbon credits by examining applicable carbon methodologies, permanence, additionality, leakage and associated risks. The Verified Carbon Unit earnings potential over the project duration was estimated using the DeNitrification-DeComposition soil biochemistry model, integrating inputs from the client, trial data and regional datasets.

Carboncarbon
2023-2024South Africa SmartAgrIoT South Africa Amathole District SmartAgrIoT Feasibility Study

C4 is conducting a Feasibility Study for a carbon project in the Amathole District, located in South Africas Eastern Cape. The projects primary objective is to introduce improved agricultural land management practices to smallholder farmers, while simultaneously sequestering CO2. Agroforestry and woodlots will be introduced to the area by primarily using moringa trees (Moringa oleifera). Moreover, the project will empower women, youth and people with disabilities in the district via targeted initiatives. The implementation of the project is expected to enhance community livelihoods and strengthen their resilience to climate change. These activities will align with Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) guidelines and adhere to Verras VM0042 methodology for improved agricultural land management. In addition, the project endeavours to generate carbon credits.

Carboncarbon
2023-2024PakistanBlue Carbon General Trading LLC Scoping Study for the potential of LPG cookstove distribution

C4 assessed the carbon credit generating potential of a project that disseminates improved liquid petroleum gas (LPG) cookstoves in Pakistan. This projects primary objective is to reduce reliance on wood in rural Pakistan. C4s assessment comprised a review of existing cooking fuel preferences in the area, an estimation of potential emission reductions from the distribution of 50,000 efficient LPG stoves intended to replace wood-fired cookstoves and an evaluation of the project’s additionality.

Carboncarbon
2024ZambiaSecond Mile/Community Climate SolutionsZambia Flamponje Feasibility Study

C4 is developing a Feasibility Study for Community Climate Solutions within the Rufunsa district of Zambia, addressing the challenge of frequent fires that result in considerable degradation of miombo woodlands. This study aims to: i) explore potential mitigation activities that have the potential to halt ecosystem degradation; ii) identify applicable carbon methodologies; and iii) estimate the net emission reductions and removals potential in this landscape. This study will assess the viability of implementing this project, identify potential risks and inform decision-making for carbon projects in the area.

Carboncarbon
2006SeychellesUNDPAdaptation of the water sector to climate change in the Seychelles

C4 developed a Project Concept for UNDP. This project focused on building the resilience of the water sector to the projected effects of climate change; proposing interventions pertaining to water supply and management. These interventions included: i) water conservation measures; ii) the introduction of financial incentives or tariffs; iii) rainwater harvesting legislation to improve water catchment functioning; iv) improved water storage capacity; v) water transfer mechanisms; and vi) capacity building in water resource management.

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2007TurkeyUNDPEnhancing the capacity of Turkey to adapt to climate change

C4 developed a Project Document for this project funded by the MDG Achievement-fund. The project promoted a multi-faceted approach to maintaining agricultural productivity, ecosystem goods and services, and the natural resource base in the context of a warming and drying climate. The objective of the project was to develop capacity to manage climate change risks for rural and coastal development in Turkey. Four outcomes were developed, namely: i) mainstreaming climate change adaptation into the national development framework; ii) building capacity in national and regional institutions; iii) piloting community-based adaptation projects in the Seyhan River Basin; and iv) integrating climate change adaptation into all UN agencies in Turkey.

Othermdgfund.org/program/enhancingcapacityturkeyadaptclimatechangeother
2009South AfricaFlower Valley TrustCarbon stocks under different land-uses in Agulhas Plain Fynbos, Nuwejaars Special Management Area and Flower Valley Trust

C4 conducted scientific research to assess the financial viability of using carbon finance to restore eroded peatlands and rehabilitate agricultural fields in South Africa. Options assessed included using wood from alien invasive trees as mulch, compost and biochar. Ecosystem carbon stocks in fynbos, vineyards, pastures and invasive alien tree stands in South Africas Agulhas Plain were also quantified. Additionally, carbon sequestration benefits of conserving the indigenous vegetation was compared with other land uses.

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2009, 2008-2012Congo Brazzaville, Mauritius, Niger and Senegal, 21 countries across AfricaUNDP and the Government of Japan, UNDP and the Government of JapanAfrica Adaptation Programme

C4 developed four Project Documents for the African Adaptation Programme (AAP), for Congo Brazzaville, Mauritius, Niger and Senegal. This continent-wide initiative mainstreamed climate change adaptation into national programmes and processes through complementary regional, national, sub-national and local activities.

Otherhttps://www.adaptation-undp.org/projects/africa-adaptation-programme, http://www.adaptation-undp.org/projects/africa-adaptation-programme other
2009Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and UzbekistanUNDPCentral Asian multi-country programme in climate risk management

C4 developed a Project Document for this Central Asian adaptation programme for Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The goals of the programme were to: i) promote adaptation to climate change and reduce climate-related disasters in each country; and ii) integrate climate risk management into each countrys main development policies and strategies.

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2010NigeriaUNDPLong-term planning for low emission, climate-resilient development in the Delta State, Nigeria

C4 developed a Project Document for this UNDP and Government of Nigeria (GoN) project. The objective of the project was to build technical capacity within the GoN and the private sector to implement appropriate mitigation and adaptation interventions. These interventions included: i) cross-sectoral studies on the nexus between environmental degradation and climate change impacts; ii) identification of communities in Delta State most vulnerable to climate change; and iii) identification of appropriate GHG mitigation and adaptation options.

Otherwww.adaptation-undp.org/projects/dc-nigeria-taccother
2011UgandaUNDPTechnical Feasibility Study of the Territorial Approach to Climate Change (TACC) project for the Mbale region of Uganda

C4 undertook a technical assessment prior to implementation of this project. The project focused on mitigation and adaptation in three districts in eastern Uganda. The technical feasibility of several activities was examined, including: i) support for the Forests Absorbing Carbon Emission (FACE) programme; ii) upland afforestation; iii) coffee agroforestry; iv) improved combustion stove distribution; v) a small grants scheme; and vi) rainwater harvesting.

Otherwww.ug.undp.org/content/uganda/en/home/operations/projects/environment_and_energy/territorial-approach-to-climate-change-project--tacc--for-mbale-.htmlother
2011South AfricaBRLiEarly warning and advisory climate services and products: a diagnostic review and needs assessment for Sub-Saharan Africa South Africa

C4 conducted a needs assessment and review of early warning systems (EWS) against climate risks for this African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD)-funded project. The needs for EWSs and advisory services were identified within four themes: i) agriculture and food security; ii) water; iii) health; and iv) severe weather events. The findings and recommendations of the study were used to inform the African Early Warning and Advisory Climate Services (AEWACS) project.

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2011ZambiaBRLiEarly warning and advisory climate service and product: a diagnostic review and needs assessment for Sub-Saharan Africa Zambia

C4 conducted a needs assessment and review of early warning systems (EWS) against climate risks for this African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD)-funded project. The needs for EWS and advisory services were identified within four themes: i) agriculture and food security; ii) water; iii) health; and iv) severe weather events. The findings and recommendations of the study were inputs into the African Early Warning and Advisory Climate Services (AEWACS) project.

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2011TurkeyUNEPBuilding Turkey’s resilience to climate change through ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)

C4 developed a Project Document for this project in Turkey. The project objective was to increase the supply of ecosystem goods and services within the Anatolian steppes, Mediterranean forests, Cukurova coastal zone and southeastern GAP region.

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2011Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates and YemenUNDPArab Climate Resilience Initiative

C4 developed a Project Document for this project. The project objective was to establish the foundations of a regional platform to provide support for climate resilience in countries of the Arab region. Project activities included: i) enhancing institutional capacity to address the effects of climate change; ii) strengthening resilience to the negative effects of climate change and creating opportunities to enhance the production and use of sustainable energy; and iii) advocating for, and creating public awareness in, countries of the Arab region regarding climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Otherwww.arabclimateinitiative.org/other
2011-2012MozambiqueGovernment of MozambiqueUnderstanding the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the development of a climate proofing strategy in the Limpopo River Basin

C4 developed a Project Document for this Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Achievement Fund project in Mozambique. The project aimed to incorporate climate change into the Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA) development plans of local government authorities in the Limpopo River Basin. The project objectives were to build climate resilience and reduce the disaster risk of local communities. Downscaled climate models were used to generate 840 years of daily simulations, which were then run through hydrological and agricultural models. The results were combined with indicators of socioeconomic vulnerability to identify hotspots where climate-related hazards were most likely to affect local communities.

Othermptf.undp.org/factsheet/project/00067152?lo=1other
2011-2013South AfricaTable Mountain FundCarbon stocks under different land-uses in renosterveld

C4 conducted scientific research to quantify carbon storage in plants and soils in renosterveld vegetation, a highly threatened indigenous vegetation type in the southern Cape, South Africa. The research included assessing the commercial viability of using carbon finance to restore renosterveld in cultivated lands, to create conservation corridors between fragments of intact renosterveld.

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2011-2014MozambiqueFFEMClimate Change Adaptation in the Quirimbas National Park, Mozambique

C4 EcoSolutions developed a projection appraisal project for the Climate Change Adaptation in the Quirimbas National Park project. The project involved: i) assessing the effect of climate change on the ecosystems of a specific area; ii) designing ecosystem management strategies based on research activities; iii) applying the strategies to a protected area of national and international importance; and iv) implementing a REDD+ approach.

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2011-2014CambodiaUNEPEnhancing climate change resilience of rural communities living in protected areas of Cambodia

C4 developed a Project Note and a Project Document, undertook a Baseline Study and provided technical advisory services for this AF-funded project, approved for implementation in June 2012. The projects objective was to enhance the resilience of rural communities living in Protected Areas using the eco-agriculture concept by: i) restoring degraded tropical forests over thousands of ha; and ii) practicing intensive conservation agriculture in and around home gardens.

Otherwww.adaptation-fund.org/project/enhancing-climate-resilience-of-rural-communities-living-in-protected-areas-of-cambodia/other
2011-2019Niger, Mozambique and ZambiaIFCPilot Program for Climate Resilience

Anthony Mills led the development of this US$100 million programme of private sector investments for the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in Niger, Mozambique and Zambia. The investments, which build climate resilience for local communities, spanned a range of sectors including agriculture, mobile phone technology, sustainable forestry, REDD+ and weather index-based insurance. Anthony identified private sector opportunities, engaged with private sector companies, undertook market analyses with sub-contracted firms, formulated business plans with sub-contracted firms and provided technical advisory on the implementation of investments.

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2012-2013SADC countriesGIZDevelopment of integrated MRV systems for REDD+ in the SADC region

C4 undertook a study on current capacity and needs for measurement, reporting and verification of deforestation and forest degradation across the SADC region. Extensive consultations with multiple stakeholders were held, including in-country consultations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

Otherwww.giz.de/en/worldwide/15908.htmlother
2013GhanaIFADGhana Rural Growth Programme

C4 developed the climate change adaptation interventions, under the Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme, for this project funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The project included designing and costing project interventions to build climate resilience within agriculture in rural areas. Project components included: i) climate change awareness raising; ii) infrastructure investment; iii) agro-ecological adaptation; and iv) policy dialogue and capacity building.

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2013NigeriaIFADAdditional financing to community-based agricultural and rural development programme

C4 reviewed this project. The review focused on climate change adaptation and natural resource management interventions under the Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme, for this project funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

Otherwww.ifad.org/en/document-detail/asset/40124400other
2013-2014South AfricaWestern Cape Provincial GovernmentWestern Cape ecosystems goods and services valuation and investment portfolio (WC Eco-Invest Project)

C4, in partnership with Anchor Environmental, identified private sector business opportunities in the restoration/conservation of ecosystems in the Western Cape, South Africa. Appropriate financing mechanisms and public sector activities were described for catalysing such investments. The project formed part of the Western Cape Green Economy Strategy Framework, Green is Smart. This framework included Smart Ecosystems as one of its five focal areas, to facilitate strategic investments in the protection, restoration and management of ecosystems.

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2014South AfricaIDH (Instituut voor Duurzame Handel)Feasibility of sustainable livestock production in the Eastern Cape, South Africa as part of the Sustainable Land and Water Programme

C4 developed a Feasibility Study on the upscaling of two models for sustainable livestock management in two water catchments in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. These models focused on: i) improved livestock production; ii) improved market access for communal farmers; iii) improved livelihoods for communal farmers; and iv) rehabilitated degraded grasslands.

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2014-2015NigeriaPrivate sector CarbonPlus Capital Niger Delta Climate Resilience Initiative

C4 undertook a Pre-feasibility Studyand developed a Project Identification Note for this REDD+ project in Nigeria. The project focused on directing private sector investment to the restoration and conservation of mangroves and swamp forests in the country to generate carbon credits. Restoration interventions were complemented by alternative livelihood strategies to produce certified commodities which increase household income and/or food security.

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2014-2018South AfricaDepartment of Environmental Affairs (DEA) of the Government of South AfricaNatural Soil Infrastructure and Ecosystem Services Assessments

C4 undertook primary research, funded by the Government of South Africas Department of Environmental Affairs, investigating the relationship between soil properties and woody plant invasions i.e. Invasive Alien Plants (IAPs) and bush encroachment in South Africas fynbos, grasslands and savanna biomes. In addition, C4 has continued to be involved in a scientific technical advisory role to the ecological restoration projects within the Natural Resource Management Programme (NRMP) in thicket ecosystems. The objectives of the work are to: i) monitor and evaluate the effect of NRMP interventions on vegetation dynamics, soil erodibility, rates of soil erosion, soil water content and ecosystem carbon stocks; ii) generate an income stream from verified carbon credits in subtropical thicket; and iii) build the capacity of graduate students in the field of natural resource management and restoration ecology.

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2015SenegalCentre for Ecological MonitoringAdaptation to coastal erosion in vulnerable areas

C4 undertook the Terminal Evaluation (TE) for a project funded by the AF. The project objectives were to address the priority needs for adaptation to climate change as identified in the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), including the effects of sea level rise on the implementation sites of Saly, Rufisque and Joal. The interventions of the project included the construction/rehabilitation of seawalls, anti-salt dikes and fish docks. In addition, the project implemented interventions to improve communities livelihoods by: i) providing training; ii) providing equipment for fish processing; and iii) increasing the productivity of agricultural land. The development of appropriate regulations to support adaptation to climate change in coastal areas was also undertaken. The TE included field-based assessments of the efficiency and sustainability of hard infrastructure and other activities implemented by the project. The results of the projects were compared with the initial objectives and targets defined at inception and mid-term. The study also included designing surveys undertaken to measure the projected and realised project benefits. The results of the assessments and surveys were used to produce lessons learned and improve the implementation of future projects by the GoS and the AF.

Otherwww.adaptation-fund.org/project/adaptation-to-coastal-erosion-in-vulnerable-areas/other
2015-2016South AfricaCasidra, Gouritz Cluster Biosphere Reserve and LandCareMapping of potential Spekboom restoration areas in the Calitzdorp Domain

C4 undertook a field-mapping exercise to identify potential areas for spekboom (Portulacaria afra) restoration in the Calitzdorp area of the Klein Karoo, South Africa. This assessment: i) determined the historical and current extent of spekboom vegetation types within the area; ii) mapped restoration potential i.e. currently degraded areas which were historically spekboom-rich vegetation types at a scale of 1:15,000 within the domain; iii) gauged the willingness of land owners and land users to participate in restoration activities; and iv) developed restoration protocols and standard operating procedures to guide restoration activities within the Calitzdorp planning domain.

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2016ZambiaUNDPSolar4Health: using solar energy to improve health services and storage of medicines in Zambia

C4 developed a Project Document for this UNDP initiative in Zambia. The objective of the Solar4Health project was to provide solar energy to health facilities in Zambia, thereby improving healthcare and the storage of medicines. In addition, the project transferred relevant knowledge and technologies to the GoZ and private sector, contributing towards an enabling environment for further investment in solar technology.

Otherstories.undp.org/solar-for-healthother
2016-2017Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and NigerCAREAdaptation Learning Programme (ALP) climate information systems (CIS) impact assessment

C4 undertook a continental-scale impact assessment of Climate Information Systems (CIS) and the participatory approaches to their integration into five African countries. The assessment evaluated the impact of CIS on vulnerable communities in adapting their livelihoods to climate change using a community-based adaptation approach. Additionally, the assessment: i) identified potential pathways for upscaling of the participatory approaches; ii) made recommendations for the further upscaling of the approach and iii) put forward questions to advance research in this field.

OtherGbetibouo, G., Obuya, G., Mills, A., Snyman, D., Huyser, O., & Hill, C. (2017). Regional impact assessment on climate information services for community-based adaptation to climate change, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Niger. C4 EcoSolutions and CARE International. Weblinks to report for: , , , , .other
2017ZambiaIUCNNsumbu National Park Climate Change Strategy

C4 developed a Climate Change Strategy for Nsumbu National Park in Zambia. The strategy was developed under the IUCN ESAROs Integrated Planning to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Strategic Plan and Increase Ecosystem Resilience to Climate Change Project. This project, which was implemented in Tanzania, Zambia, Vietnam and Colombia, was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). The Integrated Planning Project will increase capacity to optimise land-use planning which supports biodiversity conservation and climate change adaptation objectives, including the effective engagement of protected area systems.

Otherwww.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/content/documents/nsumbu_national_park_climate_change_strategy.docxother
2017Burkina FasoFAOFAO Integrer la resilience climatique a la production agricole et pastorale pour la securite alimentaire dans les zones rurales vulnerables a travers lapproche champ ecole des producteurs

C4 provided technical advisory services for this FAO-funded project. Relevant tasks included: i) reviewing, analysing and identifying best practices for climate-resilient agropastoralism; ii) discussing and validating the identified practices with national and regional stakeholders at regional and national workshops; and iii) facilitating the dissemination of best practices for climate-resilient agropastoralism by publishing reports and radio shows targeting the local communities.

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2015-2016Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and UgandaUNEPAdapting to climate change in the Lake Victoria Basin

C4 developed the Concept Note and a Project Proposal which was approved for funding by the Adaptation Fund in May 2017. This project will increase climate resilience in the Lake Victoria Basin at both a regional and local level by implementing regional and community-based climate change adaptation interventions.

Otherwww.adaptation-fund.org/project/adapting-climate-change-lake-victoria-basin-burundi-kenya-rwanda-tanzania-uganda/other
2017GlobalIFCIFC Thought Leadership Programme. Encompass Note 47 From Farm to Fork: Private Enterprise Can Reduce Food Loss Through Climate-Smart Agriculture

Anthony Mills led the development of an IFC EMCompass Note, for the IFC Thought Leadership group, on post-harvest losses in global food supply chains. The report analysed how some private enterprises have successfully tackled post-harvest losses. Following this, recommendations were provided on how value chains in developing countries can reduce post-harvest losses, particularly under climate change conditions. Anthony undertook the primary research and wrote the text for the IFC EMCompass Note.

Otherwww.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/6c0c9e39-7bd0-4dfa-9d47-32c29d0ecf44/EMCompass_Note_47_FIN.PDF?MOD=AJPERES&CVID=lZPB45gother
2017-2018South AfricaGIZTowards a policy on indigenous bush encroachment in South Africa

C4 co-developed a report with Anchor Environmental for South Africas Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) on the threat of indigenous bush encroachment in the savannas and grasslands of South Africa. The report comprised: i) a review of the nature, extent and causes of bush encroachment; ii) an assessment of the impacts of bush encroachment on ecosystem services; iii) a review of the potential remedies for the problem; iv) a review of policy and legislation relevant to the management of bush encroachment; and v) an evaluation of different policy scenarios. The findings from the report were subsequently summarised in a policy brief.

Otherwww.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/reports/indigenousbushencroachment_policybrief.pdfother
2017-2018Thailand and VietnamUNEPEnhancing climate resilience in the Greater Mekong sub-region through Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the context of South-South cooperation

C4 co-developed a Concept Note and developed the Funding Proposal for this AF-funded project. The concept was endorsed at the 30th board meeting in October 2017. The project will build the resilience of vulnerable communities in the Greater Mekong Basin in Thailand and Vietnam, through three complementary outcomes: i) climate change adaptation interventions, particularly EbA, implemented by vulnerable communities in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) to manage climate change impacts, particularly droughts and floods; ii) enhanced knowledge and awareness of adaptation interventions, including EbA, to shared climate change impacts in different ecosystems to promote regional cooperation, planning and implementation of adaptation in the GMS; and iii) strengthened regional cooperation on climate change adaptation, particularly in response to floods and droughts, in the GMS.

Otherwww.adaptation-fund.org/project/mekong-eba-south-enhancing-climate-resilience-greater-mekong-sub-region-ecosystem-based-adaptation-context-south-south-cooperation-china-thailand-vietnam/other
2018-2019TajikistanUNDP An integrated landscape approach to enhancing the climate resilience of small-scale farmers and pastoralists in Tajikistan

C4 led the development of a Concept Note and Project Proposal for this AF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2019. The project will build the climate resilience of rural communities in Tajikistan by implementing a multi-hazard approach to catchment management which includes the use of EbA. This project will: i) strengthen the institutional and technical capacity for climate-risk management in Tajikistan; ii) establish EbA protocols for rural communities to strengthen their climate resilience; and iii) establish knowledge management processes which help inform climate-resilient catchment management and the use of EbA in Tajikistan.

Otherwww.adaptation-fund.org/project/integrated-landscape-approach-enhancing-climate-resilience-small-scale-farmers-pastoralists-tajikistan-2/other
2018-2019BangladeshUNDPAdaptation initiative for climate-vulnerable offshore small islands and riverine charland in Bangladesh

C4 co-developed a Project Proposal for this AF-funded project which was approved by the 33rd meeting of the board in March 2019. The project will increase the resilience of vulnerable island communities to the adverse impacts of climate change, including the increased frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, floods and climate-induced natural disasters. In response, the project will promote climate-resilient agriculture, implement an integrated approach to disaster risk management and establish improved climate information services.

Otherwww.adaptation-fund.org/project/adaptation-initiative-climate-vulnerable-offshore-small-islands-riverine-charland-bangladesh/other
2019United Arab EmiratesMoore StephensEnvironmental health and safety audit of the Al Ain Zoo

C4 assisted with the 2019 environmental health and safety (EHS) audit of the Al Ain Zoo, leading the assessment of all animal husbandry-related operations. The assessment included identifying gaps, challenges and inconsistencies in relevant EHS policies, protocols and standard operating procedures, as well as reviewing recent incidents that occurred on the zoos property. Based on the findings of the assessment, C4 provided recommendations to improve EHS practices related to the zoos animal husbandry operations.

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2019-2020GlobalUNEPDevelopment of the strategy for the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (20212030)

Anthony Mills and C4 led the development of the strategy for the forthcoming UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030), an initiative led by UNEP and FAO to scale up ecosystem restoration globally. C4s ongoing work included writing the strategy document that was presented at the UN General Assembly and other fora in 2020 and developing the full strategic plan. As part of formulating the strategy, C4 has conducted consultations with a wide range of experts from inter alia UN agencies, academia, NGOs and the private sector, and undertaken extensive literature reviews. The Decade will play an important role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by preventing and reversing the degradation of ecosystems over hundreds of millions of hectares between 2021 and 2030. This will be achieved by: i) encouraging state leaders and corporations to champion restoration; ii) engaging youth organisations globally; iii) providing a digital hub for catalysing a global movement of restoration volunteers; iv) shifting fossil fuel and agriculture subsidies towards restoration investments; v) developing bankable business models for large-scale restoration; and vi) fostering a new global restoration culture.

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2019-2020ZambiaIFCBioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) Private Sector Strategy for the Zambia Integrated Forest Landscape Project (ZIFLP)

Anthony Mills and C4 supported the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in developing a private sector development strategy for the Eastern Province of Zambia, specifically for the forestry, agriculture and tourism industries. This included conducting economic stakeholder mapping of the projects jurisdiction and supporting the development of a short list of target sectors to be considered as focal points for development. The objective of this strategy was to crowd in private sector interests to support the activities and intended outcomes of the World Bank-funded ZIFLP. These outcomes included: i) increasing sustainability; ii) improving livelihoods; and iii) reducing GHG emissions and deforestation.

Otherwww.biocarbonfund-isfl.org/zambia-programother
2019-2021MauritiusUNDPImproving climate resilience and strengthening disaster risk reduction capacity in the Republic of Mauritius

C4 led the development of a Concept Note for this AF-funded project. The proposed project will reduce the risk to vulnerable areas of Mauritius from extreme climate events such as tropical cyclones and flash floods, while also strengthening the Government of Mauritius (GoM) capacity for disaster risk reduction. This will be achieved by: i) enhancing climate-resilient spatial planning and land-use management at national and local levels; ii) strengthening technical and institutional capacity of national- and local-level decision-makers and the private sector for climate-responsive planning; and iii) improving knowledge management of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction information in Mauritius.

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2020Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Ministry of FinanceEconomic analysis of the costs and benefits associated with St. Johns Sewerage Infrastructure and Treatment Facility

C4 led an economic appraisal of a project to develop a centralised sewage treatment system for St Johns, Antigua. The study highlighted the predicted impacts of the system resulting from inadequate waste treatment, including discharge into the marine environment, and the recommended interventions to address these impacts. The analysis considered impacts on tourism, public health and fisheries under the with project scenario as compared to the without project scenario, establishing a strong case for implementing the proposed project.

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2020EritreaUNDPSustainable Job Creation and Growth for Increased Food Security and Resilience in Eritrea

C4 developed a Project Document for this EU-funded project. The objective of the project is to create sustainable jobs and promote inclusive green growth in agriculture and agri-business in Eritrea (WDZ, CDZ, & EDZ). Three primary components will contribute to the achievement of this objective, namely: i) sustainable management of land and natural resources for agricultural livelihoods; ii) agricultural production and sustainability; and iii) micro-credit services. The proposed project will contribute to the countrys targeted efforts to increasing domestic food production through agricultural intensification. This will, in turn, contribute to improving on- and off-farm incomes of the rural population and enhancing food security. Moreover, improved management of natural resources will increase the quality and quantity of water and soil resources, with considerable benefits for Eritreas agricultural sector. The provision of micro-credit services will facilitate the sustainability of all interventions implemented by the project.

Otherwww.secheresse.info/spip.php?article109454other
2020-2021GlobalUNEPA multi-partner trust fund to implement the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration 20212030

C4 contributed to developing the programme outline draft of this IKI programme, which will be used to implement the UN Decade on Restoration and thereby accelerate the restoration of terrestrial and marine ecosystems across the globe. The programme includes three work packages, namely: i) global dialogues, partnerships communication, information and awareness on ecosystem opportunities; ii) support for selected flagship programmes; and iii) monitoring and reporting on worldwide progress on ecosystem restoration.

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2020-2021South AfricaUNEPRestoring landscapes in South Africa (ReLISA): Nature-based solutions for climate, biodiversity and people

C4 assisted with the development of a proposal for the German International Climate Initiative (IKI). As part of the development of this proposal, C4 was part of a consortium of partners that included UNEP, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), UNDP, UNESCO and UNIQUE Forestry and Land Use GmbH. Through close collaboration with the other partners of the consortium, C4 developed the Concept Note for the ReLISA project, the aim of which is to upscale proven ecosystem-based adaptation options in thicket, rangeland and savanna biomes in South Africa to trigger transformative change in the countrys land use sector. The major components of the project include: i) developing biophysical and economic assessments and planning for restoration; ii) leveraging private sector investments in restoration: iii) facilitating landscape-level interventions and on-the-ground restoration and EbA implementation: and iv) target-specific knowledge management and dissemination.

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2020-2021N/ACara TobinAdaptation Strategy for UNIDO EAE/ENE

C4 supported the development of a climate change adaptation (CCA) strategy for UNIDOs Directorate of Environment and Energy (EAE) and Directorate of Energy (ENE). This five-year strategy will enable the EAE/ENE divisions to better integrate CCA into their current operations, particularly within the areas of infrastructure, technology transfer and agriculture. C4 led the development of the four main Annexes, which informed the detailed Adaptation Strategy document. Specifically, this work provided an overview of potential climate change funding sources for the EAE/ENE divisions to partner with for the development of future CCA interventions, including multilateral and bilateral institutions and non-governmental and private sector organisations. Second, a pipeline analysis was conducted of existing climate change projects within four main themes for CCA, namely: i) Adaptation Innovation and Technology Transfer; ii) Climate-proofing Infrastructure; iii) Cross-cutting Projects involving Energy and Adaptation; and iv) Value Chains for Agriculture. Third, these two elements were assessed to identify linkages between the four priority themes and adaptation priorities of proposed target countries as outlined in national documents such as NDCs, NAPs and Technology Needs Assessments. Countries selected for investigation included Nigeria, Cambodia, Fiji and Tanzania. Finally, the Theory of Change (TOC) for three UNIDO projects (under development) were revised in line with the considerations identified the four main themes for CCA.

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2021GlobalUNEPLeading the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration 20212030

C4 played a central role in assisting UNEP in developing an internal Project Document that provides guidance on implementing a joint leadership approach with FAO to catalyse the large-scale restoration of ecosystems. C4s role included: i) guidance on strategic elements such as the theory of change, solution tree and problem tree; ii) coordinating the contribution of writers and experts to the various sections of the Project Document; and iii) general editing of the Project Document.

Otherwww.decadeonrestoration.orgother
2021-2022ZimbabweUNEPAppraise and prioritize adaptation options to inform National Adaptation Plan processes using economic assessment tools for Zimbabwe

C4 led an economic appraisal of adaptation options for Zimbabwe to inform the development of the countrys National Adaptation Plan (NAP). This project aims to strengthen the capacity of the NAP Zimbabwe team, including national consultants and key stakeholders, in using economic appraisal tools to: i) assess economic, social and environmental costs and benefits of adaptation strategies; and ii) prioritise adaptation strategies in the NAP and its associated processes.

The project used two case studies to model costs and benefits of different climate change adaptation strategies and co-develop a cost benefit analysis in collaboration with the Zimbabwe NAP team. The outcomes of this project will contribute to several outcomes of Zimbabwes NAP, including: i) appraising and prioritising adaptation interventions; ii) estimating implementation costs of adaptation interventions to inform the NAP; iii) identifying new financial sources to address adaptation needs, and iv) demonstrating the financial value of ecosystem goods and services.

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2021-2022NamibiaUNESCOStrategic Action Plan for an Integrated Flood and Drought Management Plan for Namibia

C4 led the development of a Strategic Action Plan to guide the development of a national Integrated Flood and Drought Management Plan (IFDMP) for Namibia. This IFDMP will present a comprehensive and inclusive framework for addressing increasingly intense and frequent floods and droughts across Namibia in a synergistic manner. The development of the Strategic Action Plan includes the mapping of existing hydroclimatic products such as monitoring and early warning systems, products for flood and drought management, information dissemination tools and decision and policy-making tools. This will inform the identification of critical gaps and priorities as well as proposed recommendations, stakeholders and the development of a budget for establishing the IFDMP. The Strategic Action Plan will also include a focus on a pilot study area within the Cuvelai Basin.

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2022VanuatuFAOEnhancing livelihood resilience in Vanuatu through forest and landscape restoration

C4 led the development of this Adaptation Fund (AF) Funding Proposal. The objective of the project is to reduce the exposure of local communities, on several target islands of Vanuatu, to the impacts of climate change. This reduced exposure will be in regard to food security and livelihoods. This will be achieved by implementing an integrated, ecosystem-based approach named Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR). The aim of FLR is to enhance human well-being in forested landscapes by improving ecological functionality. Specifically, the project will involve the restoration of degraded or deforested forest landscapes, thereby offering multiple benefits and land uses to local communities, and meeting both their current and future climate change adaptation needs.

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2022Republic of MauritiusUNDPMainstreaming Invasive Alien Species Prevention, Control and Management

C4 is leading the development of a comprehensive analysis report on impacts of climate change on invasive alien species (IAS) in Mauritius. The main objectives are to assess the potential impacts of climate change on IAS and the likely evolution of IAS biodiversity interactions. These objectives will be achieved by: i) mapping the distribution of selected key IAS in the Republic of Mauritius; and ii) conducting a vulnerability assessment of the different climatic zones to different biological invaders.

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2022Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of EnvironmentDevelopment of a Sectoral Adaptation Plan for Food Security

C4 is assisting the Department of Environment in developing a sectoral adaptation plan to address food security in Antigua and Barbuda. The objective of the sectoral adaptation plan is to develop effective adaptation options to increase the resilience of the countrys food system to current and future climate change. The adaptation options will be informed by a baseline assessment of the current food system and a food security vulnerability analysis, informed by desktop studies and stakeholder consultations.

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2022Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Uganda, Tanzania and MadagascarIUCN, WRI and WWFThe Global Forest Landscape Restoration Implementation Hub

C4 supported the IUCN, WRI and WWF in developing a proposal for the establishment of the Global Forest Landscape Restoration Implementation Hub. The C4 team was responsible for synthesising country mission reports and thematic studies from six target countries, three in Latin America (Peru, Colombia, and Brazil) and Africa (Uganda, Tanzania, and Madagascar). The project proposal was developed for submission to the German governments International Climate Initiative (IKI) fund.

Otherwww.iucn.org/news/forests/202106/teaming-technical-assistance-forest-landscape-restorationother
2022South AfricaGIZGrowing Greener: restoration and sustainable use of agro-pastoralist systems in open arid landscapes across Southern Africa

C4 supported GIZ as a national consultancy facilitating the South African (Namaqualand) appraisal mission for the Growing Greener project. The Growing Greener project aims to promote community-led, market-oriented agropastoral land use systems that prevent landscape degradation and foster sustainable rural development. C4 supported the international consultants by serving as a local resource team and organising the work programmes in Pretoria and Namaqualand. In addition, C4 formulated the itinerary, participated in interviews, provided insight into the situation on the ground, and provided a network of stakeholders who informed the appraisal mission.

Otherwww.giz.de/en/worldwide/312.htmlother
Ongoing since 2022SomaliaUNDPClimate-resilient rangelands in Somalia

C4 is developing the Funding Proposal, Feasibility Study and associated annexes for this GCF-funded project. Building on the efforts of past and ongoing initiatives, the project supports the Government of Somalia in improving pastoralists climate-risk preparedness and adaptive capacity; pastoralists make up ~60% of the population. Increasing rainfall variability and frequency of extreme climate events is exposing the arid rangelands pastoralists use to ever greater water stress and land degradation. Consequently, the project sets out to: i) improve the sustainable management of water and rangeland resources; ii) increase institutions and communities technical capacity; and iii) improve pastoralists and authorities sharing of climate knowledge. This will lead to greater food and water security and a reduction in climate-induced conflict for vulnerable pastoral communities.

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2022-2023Madagascar, Eswatini, Lesotho, Zambia, Zimbabwe and MalawiUNDP/GCFIntegrated ecosystems and watershed management for agricultural resilience in Southern Africa: hydrological and ecosystem modeller

C4 is modelling the expected impacts of climate change on hydrology and ecosystems for six SADC countries, estimating the potential benefits of ecosystem restoration on carbon stocks and water resources. The analyses will provide quantitative evidence of how agricultural activities depend on water and influence hydrologic dynamics and vegetation availability for livestock foraging. These results will form a basis for both regional programmatic and country-specific proposals and feasibility studies, which will be developed and submitted to the GCF.

Otherwww.undp.org/other
2022-2023Madagascar, Eswatini, Lesotho, Zambia, Zimbabwe and MalawiUNDP/GCFIntegrating climate resilience in agriculture and water resources through a landscape approach in Southern Africa: agricultural modelling

C4 is investigating the impact of climate change on crop agriculture and livestock dynamics in six Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries: Madagascar, Eswatini, Lesotho, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi. In addition to analysing the climate change effects, C4 will identify possible interventions to facilitate adaptation to the climate change impacts and enhance crop agriculture and livestock resilience. These results will form the basis of management decisions and potential feasibility studies.

Otherwww.undp.org/other
2023-2024Philippines GIZ Study on climate information systems (CIS) for agriculture and health planning and decision-making among local government units in the Philippines

As part of the Towards South-South Collaboration on Climate Information Services project, C4 is leading a study investigating the current status of CIS in the Philippines, particularly in the health and agriculture sector, their associated services and the interaction between the sectors. The study aims to achieve the following objectives in the agriculture and health sectors in the Philippines: i) identify and forecast the main climate-sensitive products and services in response to the impacts of both rapid- and slow-onset climate events; ii) map the current production, use and dissemination of climate information by and for the sectors; iii) determine the gaps and needs on the use of climate information services by local government units, state universities and colleges and research institutions for planning and decision-making in the sectors, as well as at the nexus of climate change, agriculture and health; and iv) provide recommendations for developing climate information services to support local government units in planning and decision-making in these sectors, as well as at the nexus of climate change, agriculture and health. Ultimately, the study will support the development of usable climate information services in the Philippines for enhanced climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions.

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2023-2024MozambiqueUNEPBuilding resilience in the coastal zone through ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation (EbA) in the Greater Maputo Area

The city of Maputo in Mozambique is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts owing to its coastal location. The Mozambican National Directorate of Environment (Ministry of Land and Environment), along with support from the National Fund for Sustainable Development, is working to enhance the resilience of vulnerable communities in the Greater Maputo Area through this LDCF-funded project. As part of the implementation of this project, C4 has been contracted to coordinate the development of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) Intervention Protocols for seven communities within the area. The primary activities involve: i) identifying and mapping risks and mitigation activities using GIS; ii) developing targeted EbA Intervention Protocols based on surveys (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices) and Impact Assessments (Poverty, Social, and Environmental); and iii) validating these protocols. The ultimate aim is to strengthen local communities’ capacity to implement ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation.

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2024EritreaUNDPNational Strategic Framework and Plan of Action for an Integrated Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change Adaptation in the Agriculture and Food Security Sector in Eritrea

C4 is assisting UNDP in developing a National Strategic Framework and Plan of Action for Eritrea’s agriculture and food-security sector. The objective of the framework is to develop effective adaptation options to increase the resilience of the countrys food system to current and projected climate change. A baseline assessment of the policy environment of the agriculture and food-security sector will inform the plan of action and adaptation options. In addition, a vulnerability analysis will be undertaken, informed by desktop studies and stakeholder consultations.

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