Over the past decade, C4 has worked on over 220 projects in 105 countries across Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean. Our clients include the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD),  German Development Cooperation (GIZ),  United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO),  The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), CARICOM DF, Global Water Partnership (GWP), Conservation International (CI), private firms, and governments of a wide range of developing countries.

ProjectCountryClientDurationDescription
Ecosystem-based Adaptation to increase climate resilience in the Central American Dry Corridor and Arid Zones of the Dominican RepublicGuatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá and The Dominican RepublicUNEP2018-2021C4 developed the Concept Note, Funding Proposal, Feasibility Study and associated annexes for this GCF-funded project, approved in October 2021. The project will build the resilience of vulnerable communities to the impacts of increasing temperatures, droughts and extreme rainfall in Central America’s Dry Corridor and the Dominican Republic’s Arid Zones. These impacts will be addressed at the landscape and household levels in prioritised watersheds by promoting: i) Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) across forests and agroforestry systems; and ii) water-efficient technologies in communities. These objectives will be achieved through: i) capacity building for local governments, financial institutions and communities; ii) loans and microfinance for EbA activities and small green businesses; iii) mainstreaming EbA into policies and creating incentives; and iv) on-the-ground implementation of EbA.
Monrovia Metropolitan Climate Resilience ProjectLiberiaUNDP2019 - 2021C4 led the development of a Funding Proposal, which was submitted to the GCF and approved in March 2021. The project objective is to increase the adaptive capacity and resilience of coastal communities in Monrovia to the impacts of climate change, particularly sea-level rise and coastal erosion. These objectives will be achieved by: i) designing and constructing a rock revetment to defend the West Point community against coastal erosion and storms; ii) increasing institutional capacity and providing policy support for the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management; and iii) protecting mangroves and strengthening gender- and climate-sensitive livelihoods.
Ecosystem and livelihoods resiliency: climate change risk reduction through ecosystem-based adaptation in Botswana’s communal rangelandsBotswanaConservation International2019-2021C4 led the development of technical Feasibility Studies and provided additional guidance and support regarding the development of the Funding Proposal, which the GCF approved in March 2021. Botswana’s rangelands — which have already been impacted by land degradation — are extremely vulnerable to climate change, with increased drought frequency, higher temperatures and reduced precipitation expected to further reduce the quality and quantity of forage of these ecosystems. The associated impacts will be most strongly felt by Botswana’s vulnerable rural populations, who are dependent on communal rangelands for pastoralism. The objective of the project is to reduce the vulnerability of communal livestock farmers by restoring rangelands, enabling and monitoring climate-resilient pastoralism and promoting sustainable value-chains.
Resilience to hurricanes in the building sector in Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of Environment2017-2020C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal, which were submitted to the GCF and approved in August 2020. The project will build the climate resilience of Antigua and Barbuda to the impacts of hurricanes by: i) supporting the mainstreaming of climate-proofing measures into funding mechanisms, policies and standards for the building sector; ii) strengthening technical capacity for planning, implementing and monitoring climate-proofing and other adaptation interventions in the building sector; iii) assessing barriers, identifying financial instruments and developing operational guidelines to facilitate private sector access to funding for adaptation in buildings; iv) climate-proofing identified public buildings to improve resilience to extreme climate events — including tropical storms, hurricanes, droughts and extended dry periods, floods and rising air temperatures — and improve adaptation interventions during such events; and v) developing and implementing plans for climate-proofing activities and interventions in community buildings.
Building the resilience of urban populations in Laos with ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)Laos PDRUNEP2017-2019C4 developed a Feasibility Study and SAP Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project, which was approved by the GCF at the 25th GCF Board Meeting held in November 2019. The project was implemented in four major cities in Laos — Vientiane, Paksan, Savannakhet and Pakse — which are rapidly growing urban areas adjacent to the Mekong River. These cities are severely impacted by annual river flooding and flash floods. Under future climate change conditions, an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events in Laos is expected, which will lead to more frequent and severe flooding in these vulnerable cities. To address this climate change problem, the project sought to: i) strengthen technical capacity to reduce flood impacts — by increasing the knowledge base and improving knowledge management on appropriate flood reduction measures; ii) develop city-level integrated flood management strategies; iii) identify sustainable financing options for integrated flood management; and iv) implement urban EbA solutions, such as permeable paving solutions to increase drainage and reduce the impacts of flooding on urban areas.
Enhanced climate resilience of rural communities in central and north Benin through the implementation of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in forest and agricultural landscapesBeninUNEP2015-2018C4 led the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal submitted to the GCF through the Simplified Approval Process (SAP), with the project approved for funding in February 2019. The project will support the Government of Benin to improve the livelihoods and food security of local communities by developing natural resource-based income opportunities and buffering communities against the effects of climate change. These objectives will be achieved by: i) restoring land for multi-use energy and livelihood benefits; ii) improving and securing agricultural livelihoods threatened by climate change; and iii) strengthening the technical and institutional capacity of the government and communities for implementing EbA and climate-resilient agriculture.
Enhancing climate resilience and water security in BahrainKingdom of BahrainUNEP2018C4 developed a Concept Note, Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal. These were submitted to the GCF and approved in October 2018. The project will support the Government of Bahrain in enhancing water security under future climate conditions. Project activities included building the resilience of Bahrain’s water sector to climate change by improving demand management and creating a reliable knowledge base for climate-resilient water management.
Enhancing climate resilience of India’s coastal communitiesIndiaUNDP2016C4 developed a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal, which were submitted to the GCF and approved in October 2018. Combining GCF grant finance with leveraged co-finance, the project supported the Government of India in enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in India to climate change and extreme events. The project shifted the coastal development paradigm such that ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation have been integrated into coastal management and planning by the public sector, private sector and civil society. This outcome was achieved by: i) investing in ecological infrastructure to buffer against climate-induced hazards, particularly storm surges; ii) supporting climate-resilient coastal livelihoods; and iii) enhancing climate-risk informed cross-sectoral planning and governance of the coastal zone.
Large-scale Ecosystem-based Adaptation in The Gambia: developing a climate-resilient, natural resource-based economyThe GambiaUNEP2015-2016C4 developed the Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal, submitted to the GCF and approved in June 2016. This project will build the climate resilience of rural Gambian communities and facilitate the development of a sustainable, natural resource-based (green) economy by implementing large-scale EbA. Activities will be implemented within three components, namely: i) large-scale EbA to build a climate-resilient natural resource base; ii) the development of markets for natural resource-based businesses; and iii) policy support, institutional strengthening and knowledge generation to support the large-scale implementation of EbA
Operation Coastal Resilience (OCR): Innovative Financing for Nature-based Solutions that Support Climate-resilient Caribbean IslandsBahamas, Barbados, Dominican Republic, and Saint Lucia.TNC2021-2022C4 is leading the development of a GCF Concept Note to facilitate access to innovative finance mechanisms (IFS) for nature-based solutions (NBS) in Caribbean Small Island Developing States. The four target countries — Bahamas, Barbados, Dominican Republic and Saint Lucia — are all Caribbean SIDS with extremely high vulnerability to climate change. Vulnerability results from geographic positioning and resulting exposure to climate variables, as well as, inter alia, a high economic dependence on tourism and a concentration of the population and key infrastructure within coastal regions. The main climate variables impacting these countries are sea-level rise, an increased intensity of coastal storms and hurricanes, greater frequency of storm surge and wave impacts and more intense precipitation events. These climate variables contribute to a variety of climate impacts on both natural and socio-economic systems, including: i) coastal erosion; ii) the loss of critical ecosystems such as coral reefs, sea grass beds, wetlands and mangroves; iii) damage to coastal infrastructure; iv) undermined productivity of fisheries and agricultural businesses; v) reduced food security; vi) health impacts; vii) reduced tourism productivity. Ultimately, these variables and impacts undermine the resilience of affected communities and reinforce existing vulnerability to climate change impacts. The proposed project will introduce a range of NBS in affected coastal areas in each of the four countries in order to facilitate greater adaptation to the aforementioned climate impacts. In order to finance these interventions, as well as to ensure the long-term sustainability of the project, IFS will be identified and introduced to fund the implementation of NBS.
Integrated Water Management in Vulnerable Communities around Tonle Sap LakeCambodiaUNDP2021-2022C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note, Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. The project will support the water access, crop productivity and rural livelihoods of 300 climate vulnerable farming villages in the Tonlé Sap Lake area in Cambodia. Specifically, the project will build the resilience of farming communities in the Kampong Chhnang, Pursat and Siem Reap provinces to withstand increasingly variable rainfall both within the Tonlé Sap region, as well as upstream along the Mekong River, which has caused shifts in seasonal hydrological flow, increasingly frequent and intense droughts, and more intense flooding events. This will be achieved by expanding water resource information systems (WRIS) to inform flood and drought simulations for improved crop management and adaptative planning. Simultaneously, innovative financial mechanisms will be introduced to increase investment in climate-resilient on-farm water harvesting and irrigation technology. These interventions will be strengthened by building the technical capacity of farmers, water users and technical experts to design, install, operate and maintain climate-resilient water and irrigation infrastructure.
Enhancing Land-based Adaptation and Resilient Green Economies in Makueni, Kajiado, Machakos and Kitui Counties in KenyaKenyaUNEP2021-2022C4 is developing a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project in Kenya. The project focuses on the adaptation of vulnerable farming communities in the South East Kenya Economic bloc to droughts and floods through investments in climate-resilient agriculture, ecosystem restoration and agricultural value chains. Project outcomes will be realised by: i) enhancing climate-smart practices; ii) transforming rural livelihoods through climate-smart land-based enterprises; iii) enhancing policies and climate information systems for adaptation and resilience-building; and iv) developing innovative financial mechanisms for sustainable investment in adaptation. While primarily focused on adaptation, the project will also result in mitigation co-benefits through the conservation and restoration of degraded land.
Strengthening the resilience of ecosystems and populations in four regional hubs in northern MauritaniaMauritaniaUNEP2021-2022C4 is leading the development of a Funding Proposal, Feasibility Study and other supporting annexes for this GCF funded project. Mauritania is one of the globe’s most water-scarce counties; only 0.5% of its land area is considered arable, with large areas of land subjected to high levels of degradation. Climate change exacerbates these challenges, intensifying the rate of desertification as the Sahara Desert continues to extend southward. The resulting impacts place pressure on fragile oases in the Sahara, which serve as regional hubs that are becoming complex rural-urban hybrids. This project will increase the resilience of communities in four regional hubs situated in an area where desertification is most severe while concurrently slowing the rate of desertification.
Climate Risk-Informed Coastal Planning and Risk Reduction for a Resilient LagosNigeriaUNDP2021C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which aims to build the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities and livelihoods in Lagos State to the impacts of climate hazards. The project will enable Lagos to move away from unsustainable development patterns and integrate climate-risk information into decision-making and land-use planning in high-risk coastal zones. This objective will be achieved through an integrated approach that will involve: i) developing risk-informed climate adaptation planning for Lagos State’s coastal zone; ii) providing technical assistance to incentivise and catalyse financing for continued climate adaptation in Lagos State; iii) catalysing investment in infrastructure to sustainably protect vulnerable coastal communities from damage caused by inland flooding and coastal inundation; and iv) building the resilience of coastal urban and peri-urban livelihoods in the most vulnerable communities.
Strengthening the climate resilience of vulnerable communities in Togo through climate responsive IWRM and WASHTogoGWP-WA2020-2021C4 is developing a Pre-Feasibility Study for this GCF project, which is being developed for Togo by UNDP, UNICEF and GWP. The project aims to increase the resilience of selected rural, poor and vulnerable local communities to manage the risks and impacts of climate change on Togo’s water and sanitation (WASH) services and rural livelihoods. This objective will be achieved by: i) securing access to clean and safe water supply and sanitation; ii) mitigating the adverse impacts of floods on infrastructure, including water supply and sanitation facilities; and iii) improving rural livelihoods with a climate-resilient agriculture value chain. The project’s interventions will target the two most vulnerable regions of Togo — Savanes and Kara — and will result in several benefits to society and natural environments, including reducing water-borne vector diseases, preventing economic losses and conserving aquifers.
Transforming finance to unlock climate action in the CaribbeanBarbados, Belize, Guyana, Saint Lucia, SurinameCARICOM Development Fund2021C4 is leading the development of a GCF Simplified Approval Process Funding Proposal to support the CARICOM Development Fund’s Credit Risk Abatement Facility (CRAF), which provides guarantees on loans to enable small and medium enterprises in the Caribbean region to implement renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE/EE) projects. The GCF project will upscale the technical assistance facility within the CRAF programme to support the development of bankable RE/EE projects and build the capacity of financiers to evaluate projects and meet the demand for finance in the energy sector.
Tuvalu Climate Change Adaptation Project (TCAP)TuvaluUNDP2020-2021C4 led the Interim Evaluation (IE) of this GCF-financed project. The project's primary focus is to put robust coastal protection measures in place in the three islands of Funafuti, Nanumea, and Nanumaga, and build institutional and community-level capacities to prepare for the impact of increasingly intensive wave actions in the country. The objective of the IE is to assess the implementation of TCAP and its alignment with the Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) obligations and progress towards achieving the project objectives, outcomes and results as specified in the Funding Proposal. The evaluation assessed early signs of project success or failure, with the goal of identifying the necessary changes required to set the project on track to achieve its intended results.
Resilience of water-agricultural systems in Southern Africa under climate changeEswatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe UNDP2021C4 developed a Pre-Feasibility Study for this UNDP-funded project for Eswatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The project focuses on climate-resilient, regenerative agriculture, as well as improved coordination and governance in watersheds to build resilience to the impacts of climate change on the water and agricultural sector in the SADC region. Project outcomes will be realised by: i) developing partnerships and institutional capacity to support climate-resilient, regenerative agriculture in the five target countries; ii) improving access to water through watershed restoration activities; iii) integrating sustainably-produced food into supply chains; and iv) strengthening monitoring and evaluation methods to ensure that implementation of climate-resilient, regenerative agricultural practices is adaptive and context-appropriate. The project will result in mitigation benefits through regenerative agricultural practices that improve soil organic carbon levels.
Fostering food and nutrition security in rural areas of Zimbabwe in the context of climate change and variability through an integrated climate-smart agriculture and WASH approachZimbabweUNICEF2020-2021C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note and Pre-feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. The project will address the impacts of climate change on the access of vulnerable communities in rural Zimbabwe to fresh water for agriculture, sanitation and hygiene. The objective of the proposed project is to strengthen the food and nutrition security of vulnerable communities under changing climate conditions through an integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach. This objective will be achieved by: i) establishing a framework for integrated water resource management to strengthen the linkages between CSA and WASH; ii) improving water-use efficiency and production in agriculture through the implementation of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions; and iii) enhancing nutrition and dietary outcomes by improving access to clean water for domestic use, sanitation and hygiene.
Preparation of the national grid for integration of 86% renewable energy in Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of Environment2020C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. The project will facilitate the preparation of the national grid to integrate renewable energy (RE) by: i) updating institutional and regulatory frameworks to create an enabling environment for investment in utility-scale RE; ii) upgrading and insuring electricity transmission and distribution infrastructure to increase resilience to hurricanes; and iii) upgrading grid control systems to enhance load management and flexibility. Project activities include investment in battery energy storage systems and preparation for the development of a smart grid and virtual power plants in Antigua and Barbuda.
Supporting the Transition to a low-carbon and resilient economy in Antigua and Barbuda through the Just Transition of the Workforce? Antigua and Barbuda?Antigua and Barbuda Department of Environment?2021-2021C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. The Government of Antigua and Barbuda is developing and implementing several projects that will collectively transition the country’s energy sector away from a climate-vulnerable fossil fuel-dependent electricity grid towards a climate-resilient grid powered by 100% renewable energy (RE). This transition, while necessary, risks undermining the livelihoods of workers in fossil fuel-dependent and downstream industries that support, inter alia, electricity generation and road transportation. The project will initiate a Just Transition of the Workforce to reduce these potential risks to livelihoods and ensure that all affected workers can maintain an acceptable standard of living both during and after the energy sector transition. This shift will be achieved by providing skills and capacity-development initiatives, facilitating access to financial resources and creating a knowledge-sharing system. Best practices and lessons learned for implementing a Just Transition of the Workforce will be generated and disseminated by the knowledge management system to promote the scaling and replication of this project across the Caribbean region.
Development of the Republic of South Sudan’s GCF Country ProgrammeRepublic of South SudanUNEP2020C4 is leading the development of the Republic of South Sudan’s GCF Country Programme (2020). Under this programme, several priority projects will be designed and implemented, with strategic areas for GCF investment identified to address the impacts of climate change on the country and its population. Specifically, these projects will be designed to: i) contribute to the achievement of the country’s INDC (2015) adaptation and mitigation targets; and ii) have complementary outcomes to facilitate a transformative shift in the way that the country develops solutions for reducing the impact of climate change on vulnerable communities, vital economic sectors and the environment. Priority projects will target the following sectors: agriculture, disaster risk reduction, environment and biodiversity, tourism and recreation, health, water resources, energy, human settlements and infrastructure.
Enhanced resilience to floods and droughts in South Sudan through climate-resilient Integrated Land and Water Resources Management (ILWRM)Republic of South SudanUNEP2020C4 developed a Concept Note for this GCF project. The project will reduce the impacts of climate change — particularly the increasing frequency and intensity of floods and droughts — on vulnerable communities in the Kineti catchment and broader state of Eastern Equatoria in South Sudan. This objective will be achieved by implementing a climate-resilient integrated approach to land and water resources management. Such an approach will be underpinned by three main transformative and complementary interventions, namely: i) strengthening governance, technical and institutional capacity at the national and local levels for enhanced Integrated Land and Water Resources Management (ILWRM); ii) implementing climate-resilient ILWRM practices and ecosystem restoration at strategic sites in Eastern Equatoria; and iii) improving knowledge management at the national and local levels to support the sustainable implementation of climate-resilient ILWRM and ecosystem restoration practices. The adoption of this approach to land and water resources management by national- and local-level decision-makers will contribute towards safeguarding the health of vulnerable communities that depend on the catchment for their livelihoods.
Development of a climate finance tracking framework for South SudanSouth SudanUnited Nations Environment Programme2020As part of South Sudan’s GCF Readiness Programme, C4 developed a framework to track the mobilisation of climate finance in South Sudan. The framework considers both direct and indirect forms of climate finance, tracking the extent to which broader development finance currently contributes towards addressing climate change priorities in the country. In addition, the framework allows for an analysis of the extent to which climate finance is responsive to national objectives in the areas of poverty reduction and gender mainstreaming.
GCF Strategy and Training Course for UNEPGlobalUNEP2018-2021C4 developed a strategy for UNEP’s overall engagement with the GCF, as well as a training course for UNEP staff on GCF proposal development. The high-level strategy covers, inter alia, UNEP’s vision, competitive advantages and institutional arrangements for its engagement with the GCF. The training focused on the fundamentals of GCF project development, GCF policies, result frameworks, investment criteria, gender responsiveness, safeguard considerations and implementation arrangements, as well as UNEP comparative advantages, procurement systems, legal arrangements and internal processes.
GCF Training Course for South Sudan NDASouth SudanUNEP2020C4 delivered a GCF training course to representatives of the National Designated Authority of South Sudan. Conducted as part of a GCF Readiness Project, the training focused on the fundamentals of GCF project development, GCF policies, result frameworks, investment criteria, gender responsiveness, safeguard considerations and implementation arrangements.
Supporting Antigua and Barbuda’s NDCs implementation towards a transformation to Climate Resilient and Low-Emission Development Pathway 2021–2023Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of Environment2020C4 led the development of a Multi-year Readiness Proposal (MYRP) for the Government of Antigua and Barbuda, which was submitted to the GCF in 2020. This three-year proposal will mobilise US$2.7 million in GCF Readiness financing to fulfil enabling activities necessary for the country to transition to a sustainable, low-emission and climate-resilient development pathway. Activities under the MYRP will be undertaken in priority economic sectors, such as the electricity and transportation sectors. Specific activities include: i) supporting the National Designated Authority, Direct Access Entity, private sector stakeholders and Non-Governmental Organisations in fulfilling their respective roles within Antigua and Barbuda’s climate change action matrix to ensure alignment with the updated Nationally Determined Contribution; ii) identifying areas for implementing new technologies, policies and legal frameworks necessary to support the development and implementation of Antigua and Barbuda’s GCF project pipeline; and iii) facilitating accreditation upgrades of the Department of Environment (DOE, as the country’s Accredited Entity to the GCF) to enable the DOE to increase their on-blending/lending to include loans (small), equity (micro) and guarantees (micro), as well as to upgrade their Environmental and Social Risk Category rating (Risk Category A).
Development of Antigua and Barbuda’s GCF Country ProgrammeAntigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of Environment2020C4 is leading the development of Antigua and Barbuda’s GCF Country Programme (2020). Under this programme, several priority adaptation and mitigation projects will be designed and implemented to address the impacts of climate change on the population and achieve the mitigation targets stipulated in Antigua and Barbuda’s 2020 NDCs. These projects will be designed to complement targets to facilitate a transformative shift in how the country develops solutions for reducing the impact of climate change on its most vulnerable communities and important economic sectors. Examples of these solutions include climate-proofing critical road infrastructure, establishing systems for Debt for Climate Swaps and designing innovative risk financing solutions for climate-vulnerable economic sectors. Moreover, the design of mitigation-focused priority projects will be underpinned by the principles of complementarity to initiate a transition in energy use from fossil fuels to renewable energy and achieve Antigua and Barbuda’s mitigation 2020 NDC targets. Priority projects under the GCF Country Programme will support the just transition of countries towards low-emission and climate-resilient development through a range of social interventions designed to secure workers’ rights and livelihoods when economies are shifting to sustainable production, particularly in the area of renewable energy.
Protecting livelihoods and assets at risk from climate change induced flooding in glacial river basins of NepalNepalUNDP2020-2022C4 is leading the development of a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. The project will safeguard the lives, livelihoods and physical and economic assets of ~300,000 people in Nepal from the climate-induced threats of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and rain-induced flooding. This objective will be achieved by adopting a comprehensive and integrated multi-hazard watershed-based approach to managing the risk of GLOFs, resulting in strengthened institutional, technical and financial capacity to develop and implement long-term GLOF and multi-hazard management strategies. These strategies will include a combination of structural and non-structural (ecosystem-based) measures to protect communities and improve natural ecosystem function. In addition, strengthened early warning and emergency response systems will provide forecasts and early warnings to at-risk populations.
Climate-resilient and renewable distributed energy systems to facilitate rapid recovery after extreme climate events and support a 2030 fossil fuel phase-out in Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of Environment2020C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note package for this GCF-funded project. The project will facilitate the adoption of distributed renewable energy systems as part of the country’s transition to climate-resilient, low-carbon electricity generation. Project activities include: i) creating enabling institutional and regulatory systems for investment in distributed renewable energy; ii) initiating the Just Transition of the electricity sector workforce; iii) facilitating adoption of rooftop solar photovoltaic and battery systems as back-up power supply for households and small businesses; and iv) supporting farmers and community investors in developing distributed renewable energy systems and entering the electricity market as micro-independent power producers.
Transition from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) in the public and private transportation sector using a sector coupling of the transportation and electricity sectorsAntigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of Environment2019-2020C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. As a small island developing state (SIDS), Antigua and Barbuda is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme climate events, such as hurricanes, floods and droughts. The financial and economic impacts of these extreme climate events in Antigua and Barbuda limit the government’s capacity to meet its mitigation target of transitioning the road transportation sector from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) by 2040 through domestic financing. To address this problem, a paradigm shift towards low-emissions transport will be initiated by: i) establishing an institutional and regulatory framework for replacing ICE vehicles; ii) supporting a Just Transition of the transportation sector workforce; iii) promoting public and private sector buy-in through awareness-raising campaigns and funding mechanisms; and iv) procuring EVs for the government and public transport fleets and installing chagrining stations in public areas.
Antigua and Barbuda Debt for Climate Adaptation SwapAntigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of Environment2020C4 is leading the development of a Discussion Paper/Idea Note for this GCF-funded initiative. The discussion paper provides the necessary context, justification and optioning for a proposed trilateral Debt for Climate Swap with the Green Climate Fund and the country’s Paris Club member creditors. Under the proposed debt swap arrangement, GCF funds will support, or partially finance, the redirection of Antigua and Barbuda’s ~US$147 million debt towards domestic investment in climate change projects. The intention of such an arrangement is to simultaneously ease the country’s external debt obligations and increase investment in climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions. These investments will be operationalised through the country’s Sustainable Island Resource Framework (SIRF) Fund, which will be a crucial instrument in the implementation modality. GCF Readiness funds (under the country’s Multi Year Readiness proposal) will support the establishment of financial and institutional mechanisms to facilitate the debt swap. This includes financing the: i) negotiations with creditors; ii) establishment of legal and contractual frameworks; iii) reaching of agreements with all relevant participating institutions, including GCF; DoE; MoF; and Paris Club; and iv) capacity building and institutional development of relevant GoAB and financial institutions.
A blueprint for adapting road infrastructure to projected climate extremes in Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of Environment2019-2020C4 co-developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. As a small island developing state (SIDS), Antigua and Barbuda is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme climate events, such as hurricanes, floods and droughts. These events already have severe impacts on the country’s built environment, with these impacts expected to become increasingly severe under future climate change conditions. To address this problem, the proposed GCF Roads project will build on the existing Road Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Programme (RIRRP) to increase the climate resilience of critical road infrastructure and utilities in Antigua and Barbuda. In particular, the proposed project will climate-proof four primary roads and their associated infrastructure, as well as adapt target utilities to withstand the impacts of extreme climate events, including climate-induced floods, droughts and Category 4 and 5 hurricanes.
Mainstreaming financial resilience to climate change in Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Department of Environment2020C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note and PPF Application for this GCF-funded project in preparation for the development of the full Funding Proposal. The project will mainstream climate-resilient investment and de-risking options into Antigua and Barbuda’s important economic sectors, including tourism and fisheries. This objective will be achieved by: i) assessing financial exposure to climate change; ii) developing climate-resilient financial products/solutions targeting the private sector, households and public sector management frameworks; iii) developing new legislation and regulations for new climate-resilient financial services that are in line with the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) standards; and iv) establishing the knowledge base and data systems to implement financial risk reduction solutions that are scalable and replicable nationally and across the Caribbean region.
Climate Modelling and GIS Mapping of three estuaries in Mozambique assessing the role of tropical cyclones as risk multipliersMozambiqueUNEP2020C4 led the development of a climate, land-use and tropical cyclone impact analysis in the Limpopo, Zambezi and Bons Sinais estuaries as part of the Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. These estuaries support several climate exposed livelihoods, including fishing and agriculture. The objective of the project is to highlight the logical cause and effect relationships for various impacts, enabling the informed design of intervention strategies that promote more sustainable and protected land-use activities.
Development of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Readiness Proposal for The GambiaRepublic of The GambiaUNEP2020C4 is developing a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of The Gambia to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in The Gambia and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
Establishing resilient, low-carbon agricultural systems in Tonga, Vanuatu and SamoaTonga, Vanuatu and SamoaSecretariat of the Pacific Community2020C4 developed a Concept Note and Pre-Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project on behalf of the Pacific Community for Tonga, Vanuatu and Samoa. The project focuses on climate-resilient, regenerative agriculture to build resilience to the impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector in the Pacific region. Project outcomes will be realised by: i) developing partnerships and institutional capacity to support climate-resilient, regenerative agriculture in the three target countries; ii) creating an enabling market environment and financial incentives for farmers to transition to climate-resilient, regenerative practices; iii) providing farmers with training and improving access to finance; and iv) implementing a monitoring, evaluation and learning system to ensure that implementation of climate-resilient, regenerative agricultural practices is adaptive and context-appropriate. While primarily focused on adaptation, the project will also result in mitigation co-benefits through regenerative agricultural practices that improve soil organic carbon levels.
Integrated watershed management in the Benanain, Tono and Noel Besi watersheds of IndonesiaIndonesiaUNEP2020-2021C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. The project will build the resilience of ecosystems and rural communities in the Benanain, Tono and Noel Besi watersheds to future climate change impacts, which are predicted to reduce the quality and quantity of available water resources. Using a participatory planning and EbA approach, interventions implemented under the project will safeguard ecosystem services within the catchments. This objective will be achieved by: i) developing an integrated watershed management system; ii) implementing climate-resilient water source conservation practices; iii) introducing water-resource management frameworks for both domestic and agricultural users; and iv) operationalising a knowledge-management system to support effective climate change adaptation planning and water conservation.
Enhanced climate resilience in the Trois-Rivières region of Haiti through integrated flood managementHaitiUNDP2020-2021C4 is leading the development of a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCF project in Haiti. The project will transform the Government of Haiti’s approach to addressing climate change-induced flooding in seven target communes in the Trois-Rivières (TR) watershed, namely Port-de-Paix, Chansolme, Bassin Bleu, Plaisance, Pilate, Marmelade, Gros Morne. This approach involves shifting the current uncoordinated decision-making processes regarding flood management at the national and local levels towards an integrated approach to land and water resources management in the watershed. The proposed transformation of land and water resources management will be achieved by: i) implementing agroforestry systems and reforesting degraded landscapes at priority intervention sites in the TR watershed; ii) enhancing technical and institutional capacity for productive climate-resilient land management at the national and local levels; and iii) establishing the required governance framework for integrated water resources management (IWRM) to support the climate-resilient land management systems and facilitate sustainable use and management of water resources over the long term.
Developing Climate Resilient Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in DominicaCommonwealth of DominicaUNEP2019 - 2021C4 developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. The project objective is to reduce the vulnerability of communities situated on the exposed west coast of Dominica to climate change impacts, particularly major hurricanes. This objective will be achieved by: i) providing support to the Ocean Governance Committee (OGC) to implement national-level adaptation plans and Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plans (ICZMP); ii) implementing coastal protection measures in vulnerable communities; and iii) implementing Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) measures. These interventions will build the resilience of communities and ecosystems in the coastal zone of Dominica.
Climate resilient development in refugee camps and host communities in Kigoma region, TanzaniaTanzaniaUNEP (in partnership with UNHCR)2019-2021C4 led the finalisation of a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for GCF-funded climate change adaptation — in three UNHCR refugee camps and their host communities — in Kigoma region, Tanzania. By institutionalising climate-resilience and EbA practices, this project is unprecedented in its approach to addressing the adaptation needs of both refugees and host communities in an integrated manner. The project’s outcomes include: i) climate-resilient camp and village land-use planning; ii) land use and forestry to restore degraded ecosystems and enhance the resilience of ecosystem services; iii) resilient agriculture and livelihood diversification; and iv) dissemination and mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into policies, plans and strategies in Tanzania and humanitarian programmes supported by UNHCR. C4’s work on this innovative project includes further developing the analysis of the Feasibility Study and the articulation and sustainability of the project’s approach. Moreover, C4 is conducting additional climate and hydrological modelling, as well as producing a climate risk assessment to inform project design and implementation. The firm also coordinated remote consultations in September 2020, providing training to field officers and incorporating findings of the ground truthing and validation mission.
Improving the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities to climate change related impacts in Viet NamVietnamUNDP2019-2022C4 provided technical advisory services for this GCF-funded project, which aims to contribute to increased climate-resilient sustainable development in Viet Nam by ensuring more climate-resilient homes, regenerating mangroves and improving disaster risk planning through the integration of climate risk information. Specifically, C4 is fulfilling the role of a soil specialist, supporting the implementation of the project’s Erosion Control Sediment Framework, social and safeguards adherence and monitoring for the mangrove regeneration component. The work includes developing workplans and national consultant TORs, providing technical inputs and supporting the finalisation of reports and training materials developed by technical consultants.
Mobilising surface runoff for vulnerable agro-pastoralists in Djibouti using a multi-benefit catchment management approachDjiboutiUNDP2019-2020C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. The objective of the project is to build a catchment-based integrated water management approach to simultaneously: i) improve access of agro-pastoralists to water supplies that are resilient to increasingly frequent floods and dry periods; and ii) reduce the downstream impacts of floods.
Strengthening Climate Service and Multi-hazard Early Warning for Resilience in SudanSudanUNEP2019-2021C4 is leading the development of a Simplified Approval Process Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project objective is to increase resilience in the agricultural and disaster risk management sectors in Sudan by developing user-focussed climate services and a multi-hazard early warning system. This objective will be achieved by: i) strengthening national climate services, supported by coordination, a financial framework, a sustainable business model and a climate information system; ii) modernising hydro-meteorological services for enhanced risk detection, monitoring, analysis and impact-based forecasting; iii) enhancing dissemination and communication of multi-hazard risk information and early warning; and iv) improving preparedness and response capabilities to climate risks.
Malekula Water Supply Project: Increase Resilience of Vulnerable and Marginalised Communities of Malekula Island through Integrated Water Resource Management and Ecosystem-based InterventionsVanuatuUNEP2018-2022C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. Climate change in Vanuatu is reducing the availability of fresh water, with groundwater becoming increasingly saline because of sea level rise (SLR) and a greater frequency of droughts. This has a considerable impact on the lives and livelihoods of vulnerable rural communities. These impacts will be addressed by creating a climate-resilient water supply system on Malekula, shifting the development pathway away from small, decentralised systems, which are vulnerable to climate change, towards larger centralised systems that are more climate-resilient. To achieve this objective, GCF funds will be used to invest in adaptation interventions that: i) create an enabling environment for sustainable water management at the national, provincial and community levels; ii) improve the climate resilience of water supply infrastructure, including emergency supplies; and iii) enhance the climate resilience of catchment management to improve hydrological flow, particularly around primary extraction points.
Strengthening Climate Information Systems for Climate Change Adaptation in the Greater Horn of Africa through regional cooperationDjibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and UgandaUNDP2019-2020C4 led the development of a Simplified Approval Process Concept Note and Pre-Feasibility Study. The project objective is to build the technical capacity of countries within the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) region through regional cooperation, ensuring that climate forecasts and projections can be generated and disseminated effectively and timeously to inform early action. The objective will be achieved by: i) increasing capacity to generate and use downscaled climate forecasts and projections at regional and national levels; ii) mainstreaming climate information into key policies and programmes of IGAD and its member states; and iii) developing regional systems to facilitate early action on extreme climate events.
Enhancing Adaptation Actions through the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) of VanuatuRepublic of VanuatuUNEP2019-2022C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of the Republic of Vanuatu, which was submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Vanuatu and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
Development of the South Sudan National Adaptation PlanSouth SudanUNEP2019-2022C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of South Sudan to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in South Sudan and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
Building capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning Process in SyriaSyrian Arab RepublicUNEP2019-2022C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic, that was submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) providing guidance and oversight in the initial development of the draft; ii) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; iii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Syria and UNEP; iv) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; and v) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF.
Jordan Integrated Landscape Management Initiative (JILMI)JordanUNEP2018-2021C4 is developing a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCF funded project. The objective of the project is to increase the resilience of vulnerable communities in the Jordan Rift Valley to the adverse impacts of climate change, including the increased frequency and intensity of extreme climate events, such as droughts and floods. This objective will be realised through Integrated Landscape Management (ILM) across the following five ecosystems: forest, wadi, marine, rangelands and agriculture.
Advancing the National Adaptation Planning process in the MaldivesRepublic of the MaldivesUNEP2018-2020C4 developed NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of the Republic of the Maldives, recently resubmitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in the Maldives and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
Strengthening Cameroon’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processCameroonUNEP2018-2020C4 is developing a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Cameroon to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Cameroon and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
Southern African Development Community Hydrological Cycle Observation System (SADC-HYCOS) Phase IV: increasing climate resilience in the region through scaling up climate information and disaster risk reductionAngola, Botswana, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, eSwatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and ZimbabweGlobal Water Partnership2018-2020C4 led the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. Phase IV of the SADC-HYCOS aims to address increasing climate change risks in the region by scaling-up disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities and catalysing a paradigm shift in the regional approach to climate information. In addition, the project seeks to increase the DRR capacity of SADC member-states and generate hydrological knowledge products that will increase climate resilience in the SADC region. C4 is supporting the Global Water Partnership with the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project.
Climate-proofed water supply and sanitation for Livingstone, ZambiaZambiaGlobal Water Partnership2018-2020C4 developed a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project, which will be implemented in Livingstone, Zambia. The project will increase the resilience of Livingstone’s water supply to climate change-induced fluctuations in the Zambezi River levels, while reducing emissions by capturing methane and increasing efficiency of pumping operations. Development of the Funding Proposal for the project commenced in late-2019, led by the Global Water Partnership. C4 performs a strategic oversight and peer-review role for this phase of project development and provides specialist input on climate change modelling and projections.
Building capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process in the SeychellesRepublic of SeychellesUNEP2018-2020C4 is developing a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Seychelles to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing the NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the Seychelles country team and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing full NAP Readiness packages for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
Building climate resilience of agricultural systems in the North-East and Central Districts of BotswanaBotswanaUNDP2018-2020C4 led the development of a Concept Note for this GCF-funded project. The project will increase the climate resilience of Botswana’s agricultural sector in the central and north-eastern districts of the country. This objective will be achieved by: i) strengthening the capacity of national and local governments to implement climate-resilient agricultural practices; ii) introducing climate-resilient agricultural techniques and technologies; and iii) improving the provision of climate information in the agricultural sector.
Building climate resilience through ecosystem-based adaptation in Rakhine State and Irrawaddy River Delta, Myanmar

THIS PROJECT WAS PLACED ON HOLD
MyanmarUNEP2018-2020C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note and Project Preparation Facility Application for this GCF-funded project. The project will support the Government of Myanmar in implementing climate change adaptation interventions in Rakhine State and the Irrawaddy River Delta, with focus on increasing the resilience of coastal communities to floods, cyclones and storm surges. This objective will be achieved by: i) mainstreaming EbA and integrated coastal zone management into sectoral policies and development planning; ii) implementing ecosystem-based adaptation and integrated coastal zone management; and iii) developing climate-resilient livelihoods.
Strengthening Lesotho’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processLesothoUNEP2018-2020C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Lesotho which was approved by the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Lesotho and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
Building capacity to advance National Adaptation Plan Process in YemenYemenUNEP2018-2020C4 is developing a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Yemen to be submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Yemen and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
Strengthening Nigeria’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processFederal Republic of NigeriaUNEP2018-2019C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Nigeria which was approved by the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal included: i) collaborating with the country focal points to gather outstanding information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Nigeria and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
GCF Readiness Programme in Georgia: developing a NAP Readiness proposalGeorgiaUNEP2018-2020C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Georgia recently submitted to the GCF. Up to US$3 million of NAP Readiness funds are available for countries to support country-driven adaptation activities and catalyse larger scale investments from other funding sources. C4’s tasks in developing this proposal include: i) visiting the country and collaborating with the country focal points to gather information; ii) preparing a NAP Readiness Proposal in partnership with the country team in Georgia and UNEP; iii) integrating and addressing comments on various drafts; iv) producing a full NAP Readiness package for submission to the GCF; and v) addressing GCF comments.
Bukit Tigapuluh Sustainable Landscape Project (Project Pangolin)IndonesiaUNEP2018C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project is pioneering the concept of sustainable rubber plantations in Indonesia and will mitigate carbon emissions by: i) planting both rubber and indigenous forest trees in degraded landscapes; and ii) reducing deforestation of high-carbon stock forests adjacent to rubber plantations.
Building capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process in SwazilandSwazilandUNEP2018C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Swaziland, which was approved by the GCF. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Swaziland; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Swaziland and UNEP.
Building capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process in ZimbabweZimbabweUNEP2018C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Zimbabwe, which was approved by the GCF. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Zimbabwe; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Zimbabwe and UNEP.
Improving resilience of food security and water management to climate variability and changeGhanaUNEP-DHI2018-2020C4 is supporting the development of a Concept Note and Funding Proposal under the Simplified Approval Process for this GCF-funded project. The project will build on GCF Readiness Programme activities to elicit a paradigm shift in Ghana’s approach to drought management, with a focus on improving food security under conditions of climate change. This will be achieved by: i) building institutional capacity for drought management; ii) enhancing hydrometeorological service delivery systems; and iv) improving knowledge management frameworks.
Strengthening the resilience of the most vulnerable coastal communities to climate change in the Philippines’ Eastern SeaboardPhilippinesUNDP2017-2020C4 is leading the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project will provide support to the Government of the Philippines to enhance the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities along the Eastern Seaboard to climate change and extreme weather events. The project will catalyse a shift towards ecosystem-centred and community-based approaches to adaptation in coastal planning and development, with a focus on ICZM. This objective will be achieved by: i) assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme climate events; ii) supporting community- and ecosystem-based livelihoods that are resilient to climate change; and iii) integrating climate change into local planning, including comprehensive land use plans for vulnerable coastal zones.
Improving climate resilience in eSwatini through the integrated management of mountain ecosystemsKingdom of eSwatiniUNEP

Acclimatise
2017-2021C4 lead the development of a Concept Note, Pre-Feasibility Study and Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project and is currently developing the full Funding Proposal for submission to the GCF. The project will strengthen the climate resilience of mountain catchments in the Kingdom of eSwatini by implementing a climate-resilient integrated catchment management approach, which incorporates EbA and ecosystem-based businesses for local communities.
Building climate resilience through ecosystem-based adaptation and natural resource-based businesses in South AfricaSouth AfricaGIZ and the Government of South Africa2017-2018C4 developed a Concept Note, Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal, which were submitted to the GCF. The project will support the Government of South Africa in enhancing the resilience of vulnerable rural communities to climate change and extreme events. Working with the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) and the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), C4 developed the project, which will rehabilitate and sustainably manage: i) subtropical thickets; ii) coastal and riparian forests; iii) woodlands; iv) grasslands; and v) wetland systems in four provinces, supported by national policy and institutional advances.
Improving the climate resilience of irrigation water-supply infrastructure to mudflows and floods in southern KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanUNDP2017-2018C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study and Funding Proposal for this GCF-funded project. The project supported the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in enhancing the resilience of vulnerable water supply infrastructure in southern Kyrgyzstan to the impacts of mudflows and floods. The project invested in building the climate resilience of local communities by: i) enhancing the capacity of the Government of Kyrgyzstan to model and forecast mudflows; ii) climate proofing water supply infrastructure; and iii) improving policies, regulations and building codes for the climate-resilient water supply infrastructure.
GCF Readiness Programme in GuineaGuineaUNDP2017C4 provided technical advisory services for UNDP with the task of assisting the Government of Guinea to establish a National Designated Authority (NDA) for GCF. This work included guiding the related processes (letter of non-objection and coordination mechanism) and identifying national entities that could be accredited. The tasks involved engaging with stakeholders within governmental and non-governmental institutions to: i) analyse existing institutional arrangements in Guinea and suggest an institutional framework that could serve as interface between the government and the GCF; ii) identify capacity-building needs for the NDA and develop a training plan; iii) facilitate workshops to inform relevant stakeholders about the accreditation process for the GCF; and iv) help identify national entities that could be accredited and their needs in terms of capacity building.
Strengthening Iraq’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processIraqUNEP2017C4 co-developed a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal for this GCF-funded project, which will strengthen Iraq’s technical, institutional and financial capacity to enhance national climate resilience. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Iraq; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Iraq and UNEP.
Strengthening Mauritania’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processMauritaniaUNEP2017C4 developed a NAP Readiness Proposal for the Government of Mauritania, which was approved by the GCF. Tasks included: i) conducting a stocktaking assessment of existing adaptation needs and initiatives in Mauritania; and ii) preparing a NAP Readiness proposal in partnership with the country team in Mauritania and UNEP.
Building the climate resilience of small and medium agricultural enterprises in KazakhstanKazakhstanUNDP2017C4 developed a Concept Note and Pre-Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. C4 previously developed a Project Idea Note, which provided the groundwork for this proposal. The project will enhance the resilience of vulnerable communities to climate change and extreme climate events. It will enable small and medium agricultural enterprises (SMEs) to access finance for climate-resilient adaptation practices and technologies through three interrelated outputs: i) enhanced capacity of agricultural SMEs to implement adaptation practices and technologies; ii) strengthened technical capacity of KazAgro — a national agricultural financing institution — to finance adaptation practices and technologies; and iii) adaptation practices and technologies implemented through the disbursement of loans to agricultural SMEs
Climate-resilient landscapes for sustainable livelihoods in northern GhanaGhanaUNEP2015-2019C4 developed a Funding Proposal and Feasibility Study for this GCF-funded project. This project will enhance the climate-resilience of smallholder farming communities in northern Ghana by improving food security and growing the agro-based rural economy.
Ecosystem Restoration building on the Sustainable Land Management programme for improved livelihoods and biodiversity protection in TuvaluTuvaluUNEP2021-2022C4 is developing a Project Identification Form (PIF) for this GEF-funded project in Tuvalu. The project will support Tuvalu’s vulnerable populations in overcoming the impacts of climate change-induced sea level rise (SLR), coastal storms and rainfall variability on Tuvalu’s food production systems. The objectives of the project will be achieved by: i) identifying and implementing integrated land management and ecosystem restoration strategies to build resilience of agricultural systems and ecosystem services to climate change; and ii) creating an enabling environment to implement ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) by improving national policy and planning frameworks, strengthening institutional capacity, raising awareness and addressing barriers to climate change adaptation.
Strengthening Management Effectiveness and Generating Multiple Environmental Benefits within and around the Greater Kafue National Park and West-Lunga National Park in ZambiaZambiaUNDP2020-2021C4 undertook the Terminal Evaluation for this GEF-funded project in Zambia. The objectives of the project were to safeguard biodiversity and carbon sinks in protected areas (PAs) surrounding Kafue and West Lunga National Parks, as well as improve PA management by communities and relevant institutions.
Supporting the Delivery of Small Grants to CommunitiesGlobalUNDP2020-2021Anthony Mills undertook an organizational review of UNDP to identify options for delivering a multi-donor-funded portfolio of US$1.0 billion targeting localized actions on nature, climate and energy. The objectives and structures of UNDP-implemented existing small grants activities were reviewed and options were proposed for expansion of the size and scope of current community level work with new partners and/or additional sources of funding. Lessons learned from UNDP’s partnership with the GEF, particularly GEF Evaluations of the Small Grants Programme, were used to develop a plan to establish a Local Action Cluster within the Bureau for Programme and Policy Support.
Strengthening adaptative capacities to climate change through capacity building for small scale enterprises and communities dependent on coastal fisheries in The GambiaThe GambiaUNIDO2020C4 is leading the revision of the CEO Endorsement Request for this GEF-funded project, addressing GEF comments. The objective of the project is to increase the adaptive capacity and climate change resilience of coastal fisheries and dependent populations and enterprises by: i) mainstreaming climate change adaptation measures; ii) demonstrating and scaling up climate-resilient business models for value addition and employment along the fisheries value chain, particularly targeting vulnerable women and the youth; and iii) supporting enhanced community empowerment.
Strengthening climate resilience and biodiversity management in Angola’s conservation areasAngolaConservation International2020-2021C4 is leading the development of a Project Document and CEO Endorsement Request for this GEF-funded project. The project will strengthen the resilience of local communities in Angola to climate change impacts by improving the integrated management and conservation of the protected areas and biodiversity that contribute to their livelihoods. This will be achieved by: i) introducing climate-resilient and biodiversity-compatible alternative livelihood options; ii) improving the management effectiveness of protected areas in Angola; iii) enhancing the institutional capacity of national climate change and conservation organisations; and iv) improving the monitoring, capturing and sharing of lessons learned from this and similar projects. This project forms one of several child projects of the Global Wildlife Program led by the World Bank Group.
Feasibility Study for the Strengthening Rwanda’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning process projectRwandaUNEP2020-2021C4 led the development of a Feasibility Study of the project’s proposed ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) interventions. The assignment includes determining the feasibility of interventions, designing the interventions that are found to be feasible and developing a long-term research programme to study their benefits and cost-effectiveness. The project currently assists the Government of Rwanda in implementing the NAP process by strengthening its: i) technical and institutional capacity for medium- and long-term adaptation planning; ii) technical capacity to mobilise funding for climate change adaptation; and iii) scientific capacity to monitor, evaluate and generate knowledge on adaptation interventions. Such strengthening will be achieved through three components, namely: i) technical and institutional capacity for the NAP process in Rwanda; ii) advancing climate-resilient technologies and practices; and iii) monitoring, reviewing and knowledge-sharing to learn from the NAP process in Rwanda.
Enhancing the resilience of vulnerable coastal communities in Sinoe County of LiberiaLiberiaUNDP2020-2021C4 is leading the development of a Project Document and CEO Endorsement Request for this GEF-funded project. The project will strengthen the resilience of coastal communities in Liberia to climate change impacts by promoting innovation and technology transfer for climate change adaption as well as mainstreaming climate change adaptation and resilience for systemic impact. This will be achieved by: i) strengthening the capacity of all coastal counties planning institutions to assess climate change risks and to consider into County Development Agendas; ii) introduce innovative technologies to support coastal adaptation, including response planning and communication mechanisms; iii) reduce the vulnerability of Sinoe County coastal communities to climate-induced sea level rise impacts through hybrid solutions (nature-based and engineering); and iv) introduce gender-responsive options for climate-resilient income and livelihood diversification to vulnerable coastal communities.
Transformational Adaptation for Climate Resilience in the Lake Chilwa Basin of Malawi (TRANSFORM)MalawiUNDP2020C4 led the development of a Project Identification Form (PIF) for this GEF-funded project. The objective of the project is to reduce the vulnerability of communities surrounding Lake Chilwa to the adverse effects of climate change by strengthening the resilience of livelihoods through Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) and financing climate-resilient enterprises. This objective will be achieved by: i) enhancing cross-sectoral technical capacity for climate change adaptation in Malawi; ii) implementing EbA interventions and sustainable climate-resilient livelihoods; and iii) enhancing market linkages for and private sector investment in adaptation options and climate-resilient enterprises.
Integrated Water Resource Management and Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and Luang Prabang cityLaos PDRUNDP2020-2021C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF LDCF-funded project, approved on 3 June 2020, and is currently developing the Project Document and associated annexes. The project will be implemented in the Xe Bang Hieng river basin and the city of Luang Prabang, both of which are severely impacted by annual fluvial and flash flooding and the increasing severity of droughts. To address these impacts of climate change, the project will: i) develop national and provincial capacities for Integrated Catchment Management and integrated urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) for climate risk reduction; ii) develop EbA interventions, with supporting protective infrastructure, and livelihood enhancement; and iii) develop knowledge management and Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning products.
Strengthening the climatic resilience of the drinking water sector in the South-East of Haiti Haiti UNDP 2020-2021  C4 is leading the development of the Project Document and associated annexes for this GEF-funded project. The project will support the Government of Haiti in enhancing the resilience of the drinking water sector in vulnerable communities of the South-East Department of Haiti. This objective will be achieved by: i) improving awareness and understanding of the water sector’s vulnerability to climate change; ii) strengthening regulatory and policy frameworks, and building capacity at the national, regional and local levels for the sustainable management of drinking water; and iii) promoting adaptation practices to conserve and manage drinking water, including ecosystem-based adaptation interventions.
Adapting to climate change and enabling sustainable land management through productive rural communities in Timor-LesteTimor-LesteUNEP2019-2022C4 is currently developing the Project Document and CEO Endorsement Request for this GEF project; the Project Information Form was approved in May 2021. By accessing resources from both the GEF/Trust Fund and GEF/LDCF, this project will focus on the nexus between land degradation and climate change adaptation in rural Timor-Leste. The four project components are: i) developing a national policy framework and partnerships for achieving land degradation neutrality goals; ii) implementing climate-resilient landscape and community development initiatives in two target municipalities; iii) strengthening sustainable land management practices and developing agribusiness models; and iv) developing monitoring and knowledge management systems to facilitate upscaling of best practices across the country.
Managing the human-wildlife interface to sustain the flow of agro-ecosystem services and prevent illegal wildlife trafficking in the Kgalagadi and Ghanzi DrylandsBotswanaUNDP2019-2021C4 provided technical advisory services to this GEF-funded project, including budget revisions, workplan development, preparing Terms of References, overseeing monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and writing summary reports. The project will promote an integrated landscape management approach to managing the Kgalagadi and Ghanzi Drylands to promote ecosystem resilience, improved livelihoods and reduced conflicts between land uses — specifically biodiversity conservation, economic and livelihood activities.
Integrated Land Use Management Plan (ILUMP) under the Kgalagadi and Ghanzi Dryland Ecosystem Project (KGDEP)BotswanaUNDP2020-2021C4 is coordinating the development of an ILUMP for Botswana’s Kgalagadi and Ghanzi Districts under Component 3 of KGDEP. Objectives of the plan include: i) strengthening integrated natural resources management across the districts; ii) contributing to the attainment of sustainable development goals; iii) ensuring that Vision 2036 is integrated into local planning processes; iv) promoting sustainable livelihoods; v) supporting local economic development; and vi) safeguarding local ecosystems and wildlife from the encroachment of unstainable livelihood practices and drivers of ecosystem degradation. The plan will revise the Wildlife Management Areas linking KD1/KD2 and GH11. Communities will be supported to obtain formal gazettement of the WMA to link up KTP with the CKGR, with the goal of securing habitat for wildlife populations that migrate between the two PAs and use the Schwelle as wet season calving areas.
Sustainable Luangwa: Securing Luangwa’s water resources for shared socioeconomic and environmental benefits through integrated catchment managementZambiaWorld Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)2019C4 developed a Project Identification Form (PIF) for this GEF-funded project. The project objective is to achieve integrated management of natural resources in the Luangwa sub-catchment for the improved conservation of biodiversity and community livelihoods. Project objectives will be realised through the development of a Catchment Management Plan (CMP) under which: i) a Water Resource Protected Area (WRPA) proposal for the upper reaches of the sub-catchment will be developed; ii) the demarcation of National Forest Reserves will be reinforced; iii) various awareness-raising and capacity building activities will be undertaken with local communities; iv) community conservation agreements will be established; v) conservation agriculture will be introduced; and vi) plans for participatory designation and management of community forest areas will be implemented.
Addressing urgent coastal adaptation needs and capacity gaps in AngolaAngolaUNEP2018-2021C4 is providing technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will enhance institutional and community-level capacity to adapt to climate change along the coast of Angola. This will be achieved by: i) enhancing the national early warning system; ii) restoring coastal ecosystems and demonstrating adaptation interventions to local communities; and iii) enhancing institutional coordination for proactive adaptation in Angola. Technical advisory services include budget revisions, workplan development, developing Terms of References, overseeing M&E and authoring of summary reports.
Building the resilience of local communities in Zambia through the introduction of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) into priority ecosystems, including wetlands and forestsZambiaUNEP2018-2020C4 led the development of a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved in May 2020. The project will increase the capacity of government and local communities living around wetlands and forests to adapt to climate change using EbA. This will be achieved through three complementary outcomes, namely: i) increase technical and institutional capacity to integrate EbA into existing management plans for ecosystems at a local and national level; ii) build resilience of communities living around degraded ecosystems against climate change impacts by implementing EbA interventions in wetlands and forests; and iii) increase capacity of communities living around the project intervention sites to adopt alternative livelihoods and climate-smart agriculture techniques to decrease their vulnerability to climate change and reduce degradation of ecosystems.
Enhancing regional climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean Marine and Coastal AreasAlbania, Algeria, Libya, Montenegro, Morocco and TunisiaUNEP2018-2019C4 led the development of a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved in May 2019. The project will enhance the capacities of countries in the Mediterranean region to adapt to climate change and influence wider development processes in the region. This will be achieved through four complementary outcomes: i) stakeholder engagement on climate change adaptation is strengthened and partnerships are enhanced; ii) adaptation is mainstreamed into local Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) plans; iii) facilitated access to international climate change adaptation financing; and iv) strengthened science-policy interface, accessibility of related knowledge and enhanced regional climate information.
Urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate-resilient development in the Kathmandu Valley, NepalNepalUNEP2018-2019C4 led the development of a Project Document for this GEF-funded project, approved in August 2019. The project will integrate the use of urban EbA to reduce the impacts of climate change and promote green infrastructure in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. This will be achieved by: i) developing the capacity for municipalities to include urban EbA into their planning processes; ii) strengthening knowledge management for EbA in Nepal to include urban EbA; and iii) implementing urban EbA interventions to strengthen the climate resilience of local communities living in the Kathmandu Valley
Reducing the climate change vulnerability of local communities in Uganda through Ecosystem-based Adaptation in forest and wetland ecosystemsUgandaUNEP2018C4 developed a Project Document for UNEP, which was submitted to the GEF/LDCF and approved in July 2019. The project will reduce Uganda’s vulnerability to climate change by: i) providing knowledge support by conducting climate change vulnerability assessments and ecosystem services mapping; ii) facilitating the integration of EbA options into forest and wetland management plans; iii) building the capacity of local communities and government authorities to plan and implement EbA as part of local and national adaptation strategies; iv) restoring degraded forest and wetland ecosystems to reduce vulnerability of local communities to climate change impacts and demonstrate adaptive benefits of EbA; v) promoting alternative climate-resilient livelihoods to reduce pressure on forest and wetland ecosystems; vi) developing a strategy for upscaling, sustaining and replicating EbA interventions; and vii) increasing knowledge and awareness of EbA at a national level through awareness-raising and long-term research.
Restoring degraded forest landscapes and promoting community-based, sustainable and integrated natural resource management in the Rora Habab Plateau, EritreaEritreaUNDP2018C4 developed a Project Document that was submitted to the GEF and approved for implementation in June 2018. The project will mainstream sustainable land management, forestry and biodiversity conservation into land-use planning and agricultural production practices in the Nakfa Sub-Zoba of Eritrea. Land degradation will also be addressed through community participation in ecological restoration of mountain forests.
Sustainable Land Management in the Qaraoun Catchment, LebanonLebanonUNDP2018C4 conducted a Mid-term Review (MTR) for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The purpose of this MTR was to assess project performance to date (regarding relevance, effectiveness, efficiency), identify successes and challenges faced, and provide recommendations to ensure that the project meets its intended targets.
Mainstreaming incentives for biodiversity conservation in climate-resilient green economy strategy (CRGE)EthiopiaUNDP2018C4 conducted a Mid-term Review (MTR) for this project, which is funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project objective is to ensure that the biodiversity of Ethiopia is protected from current and future threats by ensuring that development and investment decisions do not impact negatively on biodiversity in the country. This will be achieved by: i) strengthening the enabling framework for mainstreaming incentives for biodiversity conservation into the country’s economic development; and ii) implementing Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in at least 20,000 ha of Ethiopia’s Afromontane ecoregion, resulting in improved stewardship by community land managers and reduced pressure on biodiversity.
Angola Urban EbA: Using an EbA approach to increase the resilience of three cities in Angola to climate changeAngolaUNEP2018C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will: i) improve access to climate information to inform climate-resilient planning and development in cities; ii) reduce the vulnerability of poor urban communities to climate change by implementing adaptation interventions in target cities; iii) strengthen the technical and institutional capacity of local and national governments to integrate adaptation into development planning; and iv) enhance knowledge and awareness among the public — including government, NGOs, and local communities — of this approach.
Building capacity for LDCs to participate effectively in intergovernmental climate change processesGlobal (Least Developed Countries, LDCs)UNEP2018C4 conducted a Mid-term Review (MTR) for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. Tasks included: i) reviewing relevant project documents, including Project Implementation Reviews (PIRs), Half-Yearly Progress Reports (HYPRs), Project Document (Prodoc), Result Framework and indicators; ii) conducting interviews with relevant project partners and beneficiaries to assess strengths and weaknesses in the project to date; iii) preparing an MTR report, which included a critical analysis and evaluation of the project design, progress towards results, implementation arrangements and sustainability; and vi) formulating actionable recommendations to facilitate progress towards end-of-project targets.
Assisting non-LDC developing countries with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation PlansGlobal (non-LDCs)UNEP2018C4 conducted a Mid-term Review (MTR) for this GEF-funded project. Tasks included: i) reviewing relevant project documents, including Project Implementation Reviews (PIRs), Half-Yearly Progress Reports (HYPRs), Project Document (Prodoc), Results Framework and Indicators; ii) conducting interviews with relevant project partners and beneficiaries to assess strengths and weaknesses in the project to date; iii) preparing an MTR report, which included a critical assessment and evaluation of the project design, progress towards results, implementation arrangements and sustainability; and vi) formulating actionable recommendations to facilitate progress towards end-of-project targets.
Strengthening the capacity of government and communities in South Sudan to adapt to climate changeSouth SudanUNEP2018C4 led the development of a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved in January 2020. The project will increase the resilience of vulnerable communities in two states in South Sudan to the observed and predicted impacts of climate change. This will be achieved using a series of complementary interventions which will: i) increase the capacity of the government to implement climate change adaptation interventions; ii) upgrade the national meteorological network and support the production of short-range forecasts; iii) demonstrate the benefits of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) for buffering against climate change impacts and increasing the provision of ecosystem goods and services; iv) improve access to water for agriculture and livestock; v) foster sustainable, climate-resilient production of crops, fodder and fuelwood to reduce pressures on natural resources; and vi) produce and disseminate knowledge on climate change adaptation to inform evidence-based decision-making in relevant sectors.
Strengthening Rwanda’s capacity to advance the National Adaptation Planning processRwandaUNEP2017-2018C4 co-developed a Readiness and Preparatory Support Project Document for this GEF-funded project that will increase Rwanda’s capacity to advance its National Adaptation Plan process. The project was approved for implementation in January 2019. The project will assist the Government of Rwanda in implementing the NAP process by strengthening its: i) technical and institutional capacity for medium- and long-term adaptation planning; ii) technical capacity to mobilise funding for climate change adaptation; and iii) scientific capacity to monitor, evaluate, and generate knowledge on adaptation interventions. This strengthening will be achieved through three components, namely: i) technical and institutional capacity for the NAP process in Rwanda; ii) advancing climate-resilient technologies and practices; and iii) monitoring, reviewing and knowledge-sharing to learn from the NAP process in Rwanda.
Climate change adaptation in the arid regions of Adrar, Inchiri and Trarza, MauritaniaMauritaniaUNEP2017C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The concept was approved in December 2018. The project strengthened the adaptive capacity of rural communities and government in the arid Mauritanian wilayas of Adrar, Inchiri and Trarza by introducing ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA). The project focused on improving the management of water and other natural resources in these climate-vulnerable target communities.
Promoting sustainable forest management and improving livelihoods through integrated land-use planning and forest landscape restorationSri LankaFAO2016C4 developed a Project Document for this project to be funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project will promote sustainable forest management and enhance rural livelihoods through forest landscape restoration, improved agroforestry practices and integrated land-use planning in Sri Lanka. It will achieve this objective by: i) enhancing the contributions of trees-outside-forests to food security, income and biological diversity; ii) building national capacity for forest landscape restoration; iii) establishing incentive mechanisms to enhance the contribution of forest ecosystem services to local livelihoods; iv) reducing pressures on natural forests through integrated land-use planning at a landscape level; and v) enhancing the national knowledge base for sustainable land management.
Promoting the adoption and financing of climate-resilient agricultural practices and technologies by smallholder farmers in ZambiaZambiaUNDP2016C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will: i) strengthen the technical capacity of national and local institutions in the agricultural sector; ii) increase the resilience of smallholder farmers to the effects of climate change using climate-resilient land management techniques; and iii) support investments in climate change adaptation within Zambia’s agricultural sector.
Adapting Afghan communities to climate-induced disaster risksAfghanistanUNDP2016C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which was approved in August 2017. This project was designed to: i) increase the institutional and technical capacity in national and provincial government agencies to collect, analyse and disseminate climate information and assess weather-induced disaster risks; ii) design and implement community-based early warning systems; iii) support the adoption of climate-resilient livelihoods in vulnerable communities; and iv) promote the inclusion of climate change considerations in national and provincial development plans and policies.
Mano River Ecosystem Conservation and International Water Resources Management (IWRM) ProjectLiberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Ivory CoastBRL engineering (BRLi)2016C4 provided technical advisory services for the development of the Project Document for this GEF Trust Fund project. This project was approved for funding and will: i) promote the integrated management of forest ecosystems and improved natural resources management practices; and ii) facilitate high-level cooperation in the management of transboundary river basins.
Building the resilience of Kune-Vaini Lagoon through Ecosystem-based AdaptationAlbaniaUNEP2015-2021C4 provided technical advisory services to this GEF/LDCF-funded project, including budget revisions, workplan development, preparing Terms of References, overseeing M&E and writing summary reports. The project will increase the resilience of the Kune-Vaini Lagoon system and surrounding communities using EbA interventions, such as dune stabilisation and riparian forest restoration.
Sustainable forest management to secure multiple benefits in Pakistan's high conservation value forestsPakistanUNDP2015-2019C4 developed a Project Document for this project to be funded by the Global Environment Facility Trust Fund. The project will promote sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation and securing of forest ecosystem services. It will achieve this objective by: i) supporting the incorporation of sustainable forest management objectives and safeguards in forest management planning, forestland allocation and compliance of monitoring systems at the local level; ii) identifying, demarcating and implementing on-the-ground approaches to improving conservation of high conservation value forests within seven landscapes covering an area of 67,861 ha with the aim of meeting the life requisites of the target species, such as breeding areas, feeding areas, water sources, dispersal and connectivity corridors; and iii) developing practical approaches to enhancing carbon sequestration through restoring degraded and former forested areas (LULUCF activities) by a combination of restoration and reforestation of 10,005 ha of degraded conifer forests; 3,400 ha of degraded scrub forests and reforestation of 13,099 ha of Riverine forests with native species.
Building resilience of communities living around the Northern Pistachio Belt and Eastern Forest Complex of Afghanistan through an Ecosystem-based Adaptation approachAfghanistanUNEP2015-2016C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which was approved in November 2016. The project was designed to build the capacity of local communities living around the Northern Pistachio Belt and Eastern Forest Complex of Afghanistan to the effects of climate change by improving watershed functioning through Ecosystem-based Adaptation approaches. This was achieved by: i) building the government’s capacity to address climate risks by improving watershed functioning; ii) improving the climate resilience of local communities through the restoration of degraded forests; and iii) developing the knowledge base on forest restoration as an EbA approach in Afghanistan.
Flood hazard and climate risk management to secure lives and assets in MaliRepublic of MaliUNDP2015-2016C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funding project, approved in May 2016. The project was designed to: i) increase the availability of and access to climate information, including the generation and dissemination of climate forecast information and flood early warnings; ii) increase public awareness of climate-related hazards; iii) promote mainstreaming of disaster risk management into policies, development plans and budgetary processes; and iv) implement flood risk reduction interventions to improve rainwater management in flood-prone communities.
Expanding the on-going support to Least Developed Countries (LDCs) with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation PlansLDCsUNEP and UNDP2015-2016C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which was approved for funding in May 2016. This project will: i) expand the technical support provided by the ongoing NAP Global Support Programme; ii) further develop tools and methodologies that support important steps of the NAP process in LDCs; iii) organise an additional six targeted training workshops on key elements of the NAP process; and iv) further facilitate the exchange of knowledge and lessons learned — through South-South and North-South cooperation — to enhance the capacity for advancing the NAP process within LDCs.
Strengthening the capacity of Sao Tomé’s government to advance the National Adaptation Planning processSao Tomé and PrincipeUNEP2015-2016C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project will enhance the capacity of the Government of Sao Tomé to advance the National Adaptation Planning process. The interventions are likely to include: i) building capacity of the technical staff; ii) revising the relevant national and sectoral policies, plans and strategies; iii) establishing a long-term research programme for the evaluation of all adaptation interventions to be implemented in Sao Tomé; and iv) establishing a monitoring and reviewing system for the NAP process.
Building the capacity of the Government of Vanuatu to advance the National Adaptation Planning processVanuatuUNEP2015-2016C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project promoted: i) government agencies to undertake medium to long-term adaptation planning; ii) strengthening the capacity of government agencies to undertake climate risk, vulnerability and impact assessments; and iii) operationalising a financing mechanism for sustainable funding of adaptation interventions in the medium to long term for local communities to access financing for coastal adaptation interventions.
Coastal protection for vulnerable island communities in TuvaluTuvaluUNEP2015-2016C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project contributed to: i) strengthening the capacity of government agencies to plan and implement coastal adaptation interventions; ii) strengthening the capacity of local communities to access financing for coastal adaptation interventions; and iii) reducing vulnerability to climate-induced natural disasters through the implementation of a mix of hard and soft coastal adaptation interventions.
Climate change adaptation in the lowland ecosystems of EthiopiaEthiopiaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, with the concept approved in February 2018. The project will: i) strengthen the technical capacity for implementing a diversified approach to climate change adaptation; ii)?improve climate risk management practices of smallholder farmers by introducing climate information and decision-making tools; and iii)?promote the adoption of climate change adaptation practices. In addition to supporting climate change adaptation, the project will promote sustainable economic growth in communities living in lowland ecosystems.
Market Assessment: revenue-generating opportunities through tailored weather information productsBenin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Liberia, Malawi, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and ZambiaUNDP2015C4 undertook a continental-scale market assessment for the GEF/UNDP-funded project on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA). The project objective was to assess the potential for developing tailored weather information products for revenue generation, with a focus on 11 countries within the CIRDA programme. The assessment detailed the Readiness of the national meteorological and hydrological services (NMHSs) in the CIRDA countries to pursue commercialisation of weather and climate services. Moreover, the assessment identified potential pathways for commercialisation and made recommendations for building the capacity of NMHSs to generate revenue by developing weather and climate information services/products.
Preparation of South Sudan's National Adaptation Programme of Action in accordance to the Operational Guidelines for Expedited FundingSouth SudanUNEP2015C4 developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) for South Sudan. The NAPA outlines priorities for South Sudan to: i) increase capacity to adapt to climate change, ensuring an enabling environment for the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); ii) provide direct channels to communicate information on urgent and immediate needs for adaptation; and iii) facilitate capacity building for the preparation of national communications and addressing urgent and immediate adaptation needs.
Mainstreaming climate risk considerations in food security and IWRM in Tsilima Plain and upper catchment areasEritreaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which was approved in August 2016. The project will: i) strengthen the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstream climate risk considerations into national policies and strategies; and iii) increase the resilience of the local communities to the effects of climate change by using climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions.
Community-based, sustainable and integrated natural resource management in Sub-Zoba Nakfa, Northern Red Sea RegionEritreaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, with the concept approved in October 2016. The project is: i) strengthening the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstreaming sustainable land management, forestry and biodiversity conservation into land-use planning and agricultural production practices; and iii) increasing the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change through climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and sustainable natural resource use and management interventions.
Securing multiple ecosystem benefits through SLM in the productive but degraded landscapes of South AfricaSouth AfricaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF-funded project, which was approved for implementation in June 2015. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstreamed sustainable land management practices into planning and financial frameworks; and iii) reduced land degradation and improved land productivity by using climate-smart land/ecosystem rehabilitation interventions. These interventions have been implemented in the Karoo, Eastern Cape and the Olifants landscapes.
Promoting climate-resilient, community-based regeneration of indigenous forests in Zambia’s Central ProvinceZambiaUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in May 2015. The project: i) strengthened capacity for planning and implementation of climate-resilient forestry practices; ii) protected forest resources by implementing fire management practices; and iii) reduced pressure on forest resources by introducing efficient charcoal kilns and creating alternative energy sources in Zambia.
Advancing the National Adaptation Planning process in LaosLaosUNEP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, its concept approved in January 2018. The project increased the institutional and technical capacity in Laos to integrate climate change into policies, development plans and strategies at national and local levels. This was achieved by: i) strengthening the capacity to advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process at a national level and across 18 provinces of Laos; ii) strengthening the system for developing, updating and sharing climate information; iii) mainstreaming NAP priorities into medium- and long-term development in the country; and iv) strengthening the capacity to monitor and review the NAP process in Laos.
Up-scaling solar energy applications for productive use in rural communitiesYemenUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project implemented solar energy technologies in Taiz, Lahaj and Aden. These technologies have increased the availability of energy in the country, thereby promoting security of livelihoods, food and water.
Increasing institutional and technical capacity for climate-resilient development in Djibouti in the Gobaad plains and Tadjourah cityDjiboutiUNEP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project increased the adaptive capacity of local communities in the Gobaad plains and Tadjourah City in Djibouti by: i) increasing technical and institutional capacity to integrate climate change into development planning at national, regional and local levels; ii) promoting scientific research and access to information on climate change adaptation in Djibouti; and iii) implementing adaptation technologies including hard infrastructure and EbA in Djibouti’s Gobaad plains and Tadjourah City.
Integrated Natural Resource Management in YemenYemenUNDP2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund. The project promoted natural resource management by integrating biodiversity protection strategies and plans into sustainable ecosystem management practices by strengthening institutional capacity, enhancing coordination between agencies and upscaling conservation agriculture.
Enhancing capacity, knowledge and technology support to build climate resilience of vulnerable developing countriesMauritania, Nepal, Seychelles and ChinaUNEP2014-2020C4 provided technical advisory services for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. These services included budget revisions, workplan development, preparing Terms of References, overseeing monitoring and evaluation and writing summary reports. The project is building climate resilience using EbA in LDCs and SIDS in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa. This is achieved by increasing institutional capacity, mobilising knowledge and transferring appropriate technologies on climate change adaptation to Mauritania, Nepal and the Seychelles. Specifically, these best practice EbA technologies are being transferred from China to the pilot countries.
Assisting non-LDC developing countries with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation PlansAll non-LDCsUNEP and UNDP2014-2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2015. The project built technical and institutional capacity in non-LDC developing countries to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- to long-term planning processes. The strengthened capacity promoted: i) the inclusion of adaptation and mitigation priorities across a range of sectors in non-LDC developing countries; and ii) policy-making based on the most up-to-date information available.
Reducing vulnerability from climate change in the foothills, lowlands and the lower Senqu River BasinLesothoUNDP2014-2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2015. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) mainstreamed climate risk considerations into national policies and strategies; and iii) increased the resilience of the local communities to the effects of climate change by using climate-smart ecosystem rehabilitation and management interventions. These interventions were implemented in Lesotho’s Foothills, Lowlands and the Lower Senqu River Basin.
Building the resilience of local communities in Zambia through the introduction of Ecosystem-based Adaptation into priority ecosystems, including wetlands and forestsZambiaUNEP2014-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, its concept approved in October 2017. The project increased the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change by: i) enhancing the institutional capacity of national and local government; ii) revising policies and strategies to mainstream climate risk considerations; iii) demonstrating EbA interventions; and iv) integrating EbA into development planning. These EbA interventions focussed on wetland and forest ecosystems in Zambia’s Bangweulu Wetlands and surrounding areas.
Addressing urgent coastal adaptation needs and capacity gaps in AngolaAngolaUNEP and UNDP2014-2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in April 2016. The project had the objective of enhancing institutional and community-level capacity to adapt to climate change along the coast of Angola, which contributed to: i) enhancing the national early warning system; ii) restoring coastal ecosystems and demonstrating adaptation interventions to local communities; and iii) enhancing institutional coordination for proactive adaptation in Angola.
Enhanced Management and Enforcement of Ethiopia's Protected Areas EstateEthiopiaUNDP2014-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund, approved in June 2015. The project: i) improved the capacity for strategic decision-making on biodiversity conservation; ii) demonstrated the adoption of a landscape approach to biodiversity conservation; and iii) strengthened national and local capacity for enforcement of protected areas including anti-poaching interventions. In addition, the project supported the strengthening of legal and regulatory frameworks pertaining to the conservation of biodiversity.
Reducing the climate-change vulnerability of local communities in Burundi using EbA in degraded watershedsBurundiUNEP2014-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project has increased the adaptive capacity of local communities in Burundi to the effects of climate change. This was achieved by: i) increasing the institutional and technical capacity of national and local governments to plan and implement EbA; ii) restoring degraded watersheds using on-the-ground EbA interventions; and iii) undertaking research on EbA in the country.
Community-based sustainable land and forest management in AfghanistanAfghanistanFAO2014-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this project funded by the GEF Trust Fund, approved in April 2016. The project: i) enhanced capacity of national and sub-national government institutions for Sustainable Landscape Management/Sustainable Forest Management (SLM/SFM) planning; ii) enhanced capacities of local communities in six provinces for developing and implementing community-based SLM/SFM plans; iii) improved management of 30,000 ha of forests to enhance biodiversity conservation and sequester carbon; iv) implemented climate-resilient SLM practices across 200,000 ha of rangelands; and v) strengthened the knowledge base to inform planning and implementation of SLM and SFM in Afghanistan.
Implementing adaptation technologies in fragile ecosystems of Djibouti’s central plainsDjiboutiUNEP2013-2018C4 developed a Project Document and provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2014. Through the project, knowledge on — and technical capacity for — adaptation to climate change was increased to enable government staff to implement, maintain and upscale best practices for adaptation in Djibouti. The project interventions aimed to decrease the vulnerability of local communities to floods and droughts by constructing hard infrastructure, implementing EbA interventions and promoting climate-resilient livelihoods.
Building climate resilience through innovative financing mechanisms for climate change adaptationAntigua and BarbudaUNEP2013-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in July 2016. The project focussed on innovative financing mechanisms for implementing EbA interventions to strengthen resilience in vulnerable communities in Antigua and Barbuda. In addition, the project built the capacity of relevant institutions and communities to plan and implement these financing mechanisms and EbA interventions.
Building climate resilience of urban systems through ecosystem-based adaptation in Latin America and the CaribbeanEl Salvador, Jamaica and MexicoUNEP2013-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in October 2016. The project increased the climate resilience of vulnerable communities living in three medium-sized cities (El Salvador, Jamaica and Mexico) across Latin America and the Caribbean. This was achieved by: i) mainstreaming EbA into urban development planning; ii) implementing on-the-ground urban EbA interventions; and iii) increasing knowledge and awareness of urban EbA throughout the region.
Ecosystem-based approaches to Adaptation (EbA) in the drought-prone Barind Tract and Haor "wetland" areaBangladeshUNEP2013-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in December 2016. The project: i) strengthened the technical and institutional capacity of local and national government to plan, implement and upscale EbA; ii) promoted the mainstreaming of climate risks and EbA into national policies and strategies; and iii) increased the capacity of local communities to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change through the implementation of EbA, supporting interventions for EbA and additional livelihoods.
Development of an improved and innovative delivery system for climate-resilient livelihoods in MauritaniaMauritaniaUNEP2013-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in January 2017. The project contributed to: i) coordinating a national response to climate change; ii) promoting drought-resilient livelihoods in collaboration with local communities’ associations for the management of natural resources; iii) increasing knowledge on best practices for adaptation; and iv) raising awareness on adaptation opportunities.
Integrated water harvesting technologies to adapt to climate change-induced water shortageYemenUNDP2013-2015C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, concept approved March 2013. The project contributed to: i) strengthening the technical capacity of government institutions; ii) rehabilitating and re-introducing traditional water harvesting methods as well as modern ones; and iii) improved decentralised water management to adapt to water shortages caused by climate change and groundwater depletion.
Building climate resilience of urban systems through ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in the Asia-Pacific regionBhutan, Cambodia, Laos and MyanmarUNEP2013-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in January 2017. The project implemented urban EbA interventions in several cities in the Asia-Pacific region. These interventions included urban reforestation, urban agriculture and wetland restoration. Potential pilot cities included: Thimphu (Bhutan), Siem Reap and Kampot (Cambodia), Muang Xay and Paksan (Laos), and Mandalay and Naypyidaw (Myanmar).
Reducing GHG emissions through community forests and sustainable biomass energyAfghanistanFAO2012-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this project, approved by the GEF Trust Fund. The project was approved for implementation in October 2015. The objective of the project is to reduce GHG emissions from two pilot areas in Afghanistan by promoting community forestry, removing barriers to sustainable biomass energy and laying the groundwork for future climate change mitigation projects in the country
Adapting community forestry landscapes and associated community livelihoods to a changing climate, in particular an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather evensMyanmarUNEP2012-2015C4 developed a Project Identification Form and Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in December 2016. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change by using EbA (implemented under the Community Forestry Instruction); iii) strengthened EWS for preparedness, early warning and response to protect Community Forestry landscapes and associated local community livelihoods from extreme weather events; and iv) revised policies and strategies that promote EbA in forests.
Building climate resilience to reduce vulnerability in wadis and coastal areasYemenUNDP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project reduced vulnerability to climate change by increasing community-level resilience in degraded wadis and coastal areas.
Building capacity for LDCs to participate effectively in intergovernmental climate change processesLDCsUNEP and UNDP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form and Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2014. The project strengthened institutional and technical capacities in least developed countries (LDCs). This strengthened capacity promoted more effective participation in intergovernmental climate change negotiations and coordination of climate change efforts.
Building the resilience of Kune-Vaini Lagoon through ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)AlbaniaUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2015. The project increased the resilience of the Kune-Vaini Lagoon system and communities living nearby or around the system, using EbA interventions such as dune stabilisation and riparian forest restoration.
Developing core capacity to address adaptation to climate change in productive coastal zones of Tanzania (LDCF); and Implementation of concrete adaptation measures to reduce vulnerability of livelihoods and economy of coastal communities in Tanzania (AF)TanzaniaTanzanian Vice-President’s Office2014C4 undertook a combined Baseline Study for these two complementary projects funded by the AF and GEF/LDCF, respectively. Both projects enhanced the adaptive capacity of local government and communities living in coastal zones to adapt to sea level rise and erratic rainfall. Both projects included restoration of coastal infrastructure and ecosystems. The Baseline Study included field-based assessments of land use and vegetation cover, as well as assessments of coastal infrastructure such as sea walls, groynes and dikes. The study also included conducting surveys among local communities to measure climate change awareness. The results of the assessments and surveys were used to revise the original monitoring and evaluation plans, including project baselines, indicators and targets.
Enhancing climate change resilience of vulnerable communities living in Mozambique’s coastal zonesMozambiqueUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in January 2019. The project: i) strengthened the institutional and technical capacity of municipal and district authorities to plan and implement EbA interventions in urban and peri-urban areas; ii) implemented on-the-ground EbA interventions; and iii) shared best practice knowledge and increased public awareness on EbA interventions.
Building the capacity of Rwanda’s government to advance the National Adaptation Planning processRwandaUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, which supported the implementation of the NAP process in Rwanda, its concept approved in November 2016. The project focussed on: i) capacity building; ii) fundraising; iii) monitoring and reporting on Rwanda’s experience regarding medium- and long-term adaptation; and iv) sharing knowledge on the NAP process nationally and globally. The implementation of medium- and long-term interventions for adaptation to climate change — such as EbA interventions — in the country was also promoted by the project.
Ecosystem-based Adaptation for climate-resilient development in the Kathmandu Valley, NepalNepalUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, its concept approved in March 2017. The project increased the climate resilience of vulnerable communities living in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The project: i) mainstreamed EbA into development planning; ii) enhanced knowledge and awareness of local communities living in the Kathmandu Valley on EbA; and iii) strengthened the capacity of local communities living in the Kathmandu Valley to implement EbA interventions which promote water conservation, soil stability and livelihood diversification.
Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Greater Mekong sub-regionChina, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand — Greater Mekong River Basin (GMRB)UNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The project increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change. This was achieved by increasing the institutional capacity of the national and local governments throughout the GMRB, implementing pilot EbA interventions and integrating EbA into region-wide planning.
Reducing the climate change vulnerability of local communities in Uganda through EbA in forest and wetland ecosystemsUgandaUNEP2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, its concept approved February 2017. The project increased the resilience of local communities in Uganda surrounding forests and wetlands to climate change by using an ecosystem-based adaptation approach. Accordingly, climate-resilient restoration of degraded forests and wetlands occurred in selected project sites and were complemented by the development of alternative livelihood strategies in communities living adjacent to the project sites.
Strengthening community resilience to climate-induced natural disasters in the Dili to Ainaro Road Development Corridor, Timor-LesteTimor-LesteUNDP2013-2014C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2014. The project strengthened local disaster risk management institutions and invested in risk reduction interventions within the Dili to Ainaro Development Corridor. These interventions have protected important economic infrastructure from climate-induced natural hazards.
Catalysing ecosystem restoration for resilient natural capital and rural livelihoods in degraded forests and rangelands of NepalNepalUNEP2013-2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2015. The project: i) strengthened the technical capacity of local and national institutions; ii) revised policies and strategies promoting the restoration of forests and rangelands; and iii) increased the resilience of local communities to the effects of climate change by restoring forest and rangeland ecosystems.
Economy-wide integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk management/disaster risk reduction to reduce climate vulnerability of communities in SamoaSamoaUNDP2013-2014C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in October 2014. The project used an economy-wide approach to climate change adaptation in Samoa to promote the efficient integration of adaptation and DRR/DRM into national development planning. This has enhanced the resilience of local communities across Samoa to climate change and natural disasters
Assisting Least Developed Countries (LDCs) with country-driven processes to advance National Adaptation PlansAll LDCsUNEP and UNDP2013C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in May 2013. The project aimed to build capacity in all LDCs for integrating climate change adaptation into medium- to long-term planning processes. The strengthened capacity will promote: i) the inclusion of adaptation and mitigation priorities across a range of sectors (for example, water and agriculture) in planning activities; and ii) policy-making based on the most up-to-date information available.
Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA)Zambia, Liberia, Uganda and MalawiUNDP2012-2018C4 developed four Project Documents for this regional GEF/LDCF-funded programme, approved for implementation in September 2013. The project interventions included: i) enhancing the capacity of project countries to monitor and forecast climate and weather; ii) generating tailored climate information for specific sectors; and iii) disseminating early warnings for climate hazards specific to each country.

Anthony Mills also provided technical advisory services for CIRDA on private sector engagement, weather index-based insurance, climate information platforms, and ‘crossing the last mile’ to ensure climate information packages reach the intended users.
Improvement of early warning systems to reduce impacts of climate change and capacity building to integrate climate change into development plansLesothoUNEP2012-2017C4 undertook a Baseline Study and provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project developed best practice guidelines for climate-resilient agriculture and mainstreaming climate change interventions into relevant sectoral policies. Its objectives included: i) building the capacity for monitoring and predicting climate change impacts; ii) delivering early warning for extreme events; and iii) improving local and national planning for adaptation to climate change throughout the country.
Enhancing capacity, knowledge and technology support to build climate resilience of vulnerable developing countriesSeychelles, Nepal, Mauritania and ChinaUNEP2012-2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form and Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project. The project was approved for implementation in January 2013. Baseline studies were also conducted by C4 for the project in Mauritania, Nepal and the Seychelles. The project is building climate resilience using EbA in LDCs and SIDS of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa by increasing institutional capacity, mobilising knowledge and transferring appropriate technologies on climate change adaptation to Mauritania, Nepal and Seychelles. Tasks completed by C4 included: i) facilitating the project launch workshop; ii) developing work plans for each pilot country; iii) coordinating EbA and Regional Network workshops; and iv) developing Terms of References for project consultants.
Strengthening climate information and early warning systems (EWSs) in Africa for climate-resilient development and adaptation to climate changeZambia, Liberia, Uganda and MalawiUNDP2012-2013C4 developed four Project Documents for these GEF/LDCF-funded projects, approved for implementation in September 2013. The project interventions included: i) enhancing the capacity of project countries to monitor and forecast climate and weather; ii) generating tailored climate information for specific sectors; and iii) disseminating early warnings for climate hazards specific to each country.
Building a comprehensive national approach in RwandaRwandaUNEP and UNDP2012C4 undertook a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded and African Adaption Programme project. This involved conducting vulnerability assessments of rural communities during a three-week mission to revise the original project indicators. Additionally, a vulnerability index was developed to assist in monitoring and evaluating the indicators.
Reducing vulnerability to climate change by establishing early warning and disaster preparedness systems and support for integrated watershed management in flood prone areasRwandaUNEP and UNDP2012C4 undertook a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project aimed to strengthen national and local capacities to deliver functional early warning and disaster preparedness systems. The objective was to reduce the vulnerability of the Gishwati ecosystems and associated Nile-Congo crest watersheds to increased flooding and droughts resulting from climate change.
National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to climate change for MyanmarMyanmarUNEP2012C4 developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project assessed Myanmar’s climate vulnerability and developed appropriate adaptation interventions across 8 sectors, namely: i) early warning systems; ii) public health; iii) agriculture; iv) water resources; v) energy, transport and industry; vi) coastal zones; vii) forestry; and viii) biodiversity.
Building adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change in AfghanistanAfghanistanUNEP2011-2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in October 2012. C4 also provided technical advisory services to this project. The project had the objective of increasing the climate resilience of rural populations and strengthening Afghanistan’s capacity to both plan for and respond to the short- and long-term effects of climate change. The project used global best practices in ecosystem management to sustain supplies of ecosystem goods and services despite the impacts of climate change.
Catalysing ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) for resilient ecosystems and rural livelihoods in degraded forests, savannas and wetlands of RwandaRwandaUNEP2011-2014C4 developed a Project Identification Form and a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in November 2015. The project reduced the vulnerability of rural communities to climate change by enhancing the capacity of national and local institutions to implement EbA activities. These activities had the objective of restoring degraded ecosystems and establishing climate-resilient ecosystems in the wetlands, forest, savannas and mountains of Rwanda.
Strengthening management effectiveness and generating multiple environmental benefits within and around protected areas in ZambiaZambiaUNDP2011-2012C4 developed two Technical Reports for this GEF-funded project in Zambia, namely: i) a stocktaking report to assess the feasibility of REDD+ in Game Management Areas around Kafue National Park; and ii) a stocktaking report to estimate potential GHG reductions by promoting woodlots and efficient charcoal kilns in Game Management Areas around Zambian Protected Areas.
Implementing NAPA priority interventions to strengthen the climate change early warning systems in The GambiaThe GambiaUNEP2011C4 undertook a Baseline Study for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The study included designing surveys which were then conducted among local communities to develop a vulnerability index. This index was used to revise the original monitoring and evaluation plan, including project baselines, indicators and targets. Accordingly, the project is reducing climate change vulnerability and enhancing adaptive capacity by strengthening early warning and information sharing systems in The Gambia.
Implementing NAPA priority interventions to build resilience in the most vulnerable coastal zones in DjiboutiDjiboutiUNEP2010-2014C4 developed the Project Document, undertook a Baseline Study and provided technical advisory services for this GEF/LDCF-funded project. The project was approved for implementation in May 2010. Its primary objective was to address the effects of climate change on coastal ecosystems and local communities by restoring mangroves. In the addition, the project also implemented climate-resilient agricultural systems in Obock-Khor Angar in the north and Altar-Damerjog in the south.
Vulnerability assessment and adaptation programme for climate change within the coastal zone of Cambodia considering livelihood improvement and ecosystemsCambodiaUNEP2010C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in February 2011. The project strengthened the climate resilience of Cambodia’s coastal communities by protecting and rehabilitating coastal ecosystems. The project interventions included restoring mangroves and enhancing the sustainable use of natural resources.
Adapting water resource management in the Comoros to increase capacity to cope with climate changeComorosUNEP and UNDP2010C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2010. The objective of the project was to improve water resource management — including increased water supply and improved water quality — to reduce the risk of climate change effects on lives and livelihoods. Accordingly, the project included reforestation activities to improve water basin management and prevent soil erosion.
Adapting national and transboundary water resource management in Swaziland to manage the expected impacts of climate changeeSwatiniUNDP2010C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/SCCF-funded project, approved for implementation in March 2012. An ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) approach was used to manage eSwatini’s water resources under expected climate change conditions. The project promoted national dialogue between multiple stakeholders from a range of sectors, primarily agriculture and water management.
Implementing NAPA priority interventions to build resilience and adaptive capacity of the agriculture sector to climate change in NigerNigerUNDP2009C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2009. This project has increased the adaptive capacity of Niger’s agricultural and water sectors. The interventions increased agricultural productivity, food security and water availability.
Adaptation to the effects of drought and climate change in Agro-ecological Regions I and II in ZambiaZambiaUNDP2009C4 developed a Project Document for this GEF/LDCF-funded project, approved for implementation in December 2009. The project had a two-pronged approach: i) incorporate adaptation interventions into agricultural planning at national, district and community levels — to promote increased investment in adaptation in the agricultural sector; and ii) assess the costs and benefits of the interventions.
Improving climate resilience and strengthening disaster risk reduction capacity in the Republic of MauritiusMauritiusUNDP2019-2020C4 is leading the development of a Concept Note for this AF-funded project. The proposed project will reduce the risk to vulnerable areas of Mauritius from extreme climate events such as tropical cyclones and flash floods, while also strengthening the Government of Mauritius’ (GoM) capacity for disaster risk reduction. This will be achieved by: i) enhancing climate-resilient spatial planning and land-use management at national and local levels; ii) strengthening technical and institutional capacity of national- and local-level decision-makers and the private sector for climate-responsive planning; and iii) improving knowledge management of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction information in Mauritius.
Adaptation initiative for climate-vulnerable offshore small islands and riverine charland in BangladeshBangladeshUNDP2018-2019C4 co-developed a Project Proposal for this AF-funded project which was approved by the 33rd meeting of the board in March 2019. The project will increase the resilience of vulnerable island communities to the adverse impacts of climate change, including the increased frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, floods and climate-induced natural disasters. In response, the project will promote climate-resilient agriculture, implement an integrated approach to disaster risk management and establish improved climate information services.
An integrated landscape approach to enhancing the climate resilience of small-scale farmers and pastoralists in TajikistanTajikistanUNDP2018-2019C4 led the development of a Concept Note and Project Proposal for this AF-funded project, approved for implementation in August 2019. The project will build the climate resilience of rural communities in Tajikistan by implementing a multi-hazard approach to catchment management which includes the use of EbA. This project will: i) strengthen the institutional and technical capacity for climate-risk management in Tajikistan; ii) establish EbA protocols for rural communities to strengthen their climate resilience; and iii) establish knowledge management processes which help inform climate-resilient catchment management and the use of EbA in Tajikistan.
Enhancing climate resilience in the Greater Mekong sub-region through Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the context of South-South cooperationThailand and VietnamUNEP2017-2018C4 co-developed a Concept Note and developed the Funding Proposal for this AF-funded project. The concept was endorsed at the 30th board meeting in October 2017. The project will build the resilience of vulnerable communities in the Greater Mekong Basin in Thailand and Vietnam, through three complementary outcomes: i) climate change adaptation interventions, particularly EbA, implemented by vulnerable communities in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) to manage climate change impacts, particularly droughts and floods; ii) enhanced knowledge and awareness of adaptation interventions, including EbA, to shared climate change impacts in different ecosystems to promote regional cooperation, planning and implementation of adaptation in the GMS; and iii) strengthened regional cooperation on climate change adaptation, particularly in response to floods and droughts, in the GMS.
Adapting to climate change in the Lake Victoria BasinBurundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and UgandaUNEP2015-2016C4 developed the Concept Note and a Project Proposal which was approved for funding by the Adaptation Fund in May 2017. This project will increase climate resilience in the Lake Victoria Basin at both a regional and local level by implementing regional and community-based climate change adaptation interventions.
Adaptation to coastal erosion in vulnerable areasSenegalCentre for Ecological Monitoring2015C4 undertook the Terminal Evaluation (TE) for a project funded by the AF. The project objectives were to address the priority needs for adaptation to climate change as identified in the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), including the effects of sea level rise on the implementation sites of Saly, Rufisque and Joal. The interventions of the project included the construction/rehabilitation of seawalls, anti-salt dikes and fish docks. In addition, the project implemented interventions to improve communities’ livelihoods by: i) providing training; ii) providing equipment for fish processing; and iii) increasing the productivity of agricultural land. The development of appropriate regulations to support adaptation to climate change in coastal areas was also undertaken. The TE included field-based assessments of the efficiency and sustainability of hard infrastructure and other activities implemented by the project. The results of the projects were compared with the initial objectives and targets defined at inception and mid-term. The study also included designing surveys undertaken to measure the projected and realised project benefits. The results of the assessments and surveys were used to produce lessons learned and improve the implementation of future projects by the GoS and the AF.
Enhancing climate change resilience of rural communities living in protected areas of CambodiaCambodiaUNEP2011-2014C4 developed a Project Note and a Project Document, undertook a Baseline Study and provided technical advisory services for this AF-funded project, approved for implementation in June 2012. The project’s objective was to enhance the resilience of rural communities living in Protected Areas using the ‘eco-agriculture’ concept by: i) restoring degraded tropical forests over thousands of ha; and ii) practicing intensive conservation agriculture in and around home gardens.
Sustainable Job Creation and Growth for Increased Food Security and Resilience in EritreaEritreaUNDP2020C4 developed a Project Document for this EU-funded project. The objective of the project is to create sustainable jobs and promote inclusive green growth in agriculture and agri-business in Eritrea (WDZ, CDZ, & EDZ). Three primary components will contribute to the achievement of this objective, namely: i) sustainable management of land and natural resources for agricultural livelihoods; ii) agricultural production and sustainability; and iii) micro-credit services. The proposed project will contribute to the country’s targeted efforts to increasing domestic food production through agricultural intensification. This will, in turn, contribute to improving on- and off-farm incomes of the rural population and enhancing food security. Moreover, improved management of natural resources will increase the quality and quantity of water and soil resources, with considerable benefits for Eritrea’s agricultural sector. The provision of micro-credit services will facilitate the sustainability of all interventions implemented by the project.
BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) — Private Sector Strategy for the Zambia Integrated Forest Landscape Project (ZIFLP)ZambiaIFC2019-2020Anthony Mills and C4 supported the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in developing a private sector development strategy for the Eastern Province of Zambia, specifically for the forestry, agriculture and tourism industries. This included conducting economic stakeholder mapping of the project’s jurisdiction and supporting the development of a short list of target sectors to be considered as focal points for development. The objective of this strategy was to crowd in private sector interests to support the activities and intended outcomes of the World Bank-funded ZIFLP. These outcomes included: i) increasing sustainability; ii) improving livelihoods; and iii) reducing GHG emissions and deforestation.
IFC Thought Leadership Programme. Encompass Note 47 — From Farm to Fork: Private Enterprise Can Reduce Food Loss Through Climate-Smart AgricultureGlobalIFC2017Anthony Mills led the development of an IFC EMCompass Note, for the IFC Thought Leadership group, on post-harvest losses in global food supply chains. The report analysed how some private enterprises have successfully tackled post-harvest losses. Following this, recommendations were provided on how value chains in developing countries can reduce post-harvest losses, particularly under climate change conditions. Anthony undertook the primary research and wrote the text for the IFC EMCompass Note.
Pilot Program for Climate ResilienceNiger, Mozambique and ZambiaIFC2011-2019Anthony Mills led the development of this US$100 million programme of private sector investments for the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in Niger, Mozambique and Zambia. The investments, which build climate resilience for local communities, spanned a range of sectors including agriculture, mobile phone technology, sustainable forestry, REDD+ and weather index-based insurance. Anthony identified private sector opportunities, engaged with private sector companies, undertook market analyses with sub-contracted firms, formulated business plans with sub-contracted firms and provided technical advisory on the implementation of investments.
Development of a scoping study for a REDD+ projectNigeriaCarbon Plus Capital2021-2022C4 undertook a REDD+ pre-feasibility study for the Partnering for Accelerated Transitions (PACT)-funded project being developed by CPC and other members of a consortium of stakeholders known as the LINKS–Powering Economic Growth in Northern Nigeria Programme. The study focussed on: i) determining which voluntary carbon methodologies would be appropriate for regenerative agriculture interventions in the project area; and ii) the likely carbon returns from increases in soil organic matter over a 30-year period.
Strategic Action Plan for an Integrated Flood and Drought Management Plan for NamibiaNamibiaUNESCO2021C4 is leading the development of a Strategic Action Plan to guide the development of a national Integrated Flood and Drought Management Plan (IFDMP) for Namibia. This IFDMP will present a comprehensive and inclusive framework for addressing increasingly intense and frequent floods and droughts across Namibia in a synergistic manner. The development of the Strategic Action Plan includes the mapping of existing hydroclimatic products such as monitoring and early warning systems, products for flood and drought management, information dissemination tools and decision and policy-making tools. This will inform the identification of critical gaps and priorities as well as proposed recommendations, stakeholders and the development of a budget for establishing the IFDMP. The Strategic Action Plan will also include a focus on a pilot study area within the Cuvelai Basin.
Shangani Holistic – Climate Positive BeefZimbabweOppenheimer Generations2021C4 is currently undertaking a Carbon Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) of beef production at the Shangani Ranch in central Zimbabwe. The objective of the analysis is to establish the baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across each lifecycle phase, to identify the level of action required to achieve “carbon neutral” beef production. The aim of this assessment is to identify the lifecycle stages that produce the highest emissions and the width of the gap to reach carbon neutrality.
Appraise and prioritize adaptation options to inform National Adaptation Plan processes using economic assessment tools for ZimbabweZimbabweUNEP2022C4 is leading an economic appraisal of adaptation options for Zimbabwe to inform the development of the country’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP). This project aims to strengthen the capacity of the NAP Zimbabwe team, including national consultants and key stakeholders, in using economic appraisal tools to: i) assess economic, social and environmental costs and benefits of adaptation strategies; and ii) prioritise adaptation strategies in the NAP and its associated processes.

The project will use two case studies to model costs and benefits of different climate change adaptation strategies and co-develop a cost benefit analysis in collaboration with the Zimbabwe NAP team. The outcomes of this project will contribute to several outcomes of Zimbabwe’s NAP, including: i) appraising and prioritising adaptation interventions; ii) estimating implementation costs of adaptation interventions to inform the NAP; iii) identifying new financial sources to address adaptation needs, and iv) demonstrating the financial value of ecosystem goods and services.
Grootbos Private Nature Reserve Carbon ProjectSouth AfricaCredible Carbon2021C4 undertook an audit of greenhouse gas emissions on a privately-owned nature reserve practicing improved land management techniques, solid waste recycling, green waste composting and renewable energy generation. This audit aimed to determine the veracity of the carbon claims publicly made by the project and to verify the merits of the activities implemented across the verification period (2018–2020).
Adaptation Strategy for UNIDO EAE/ENEUNIDO2020-2021C4 supported the development of a climate change adaptation (CCA) strategy for UNIDO’s Directorate of Environment and Energy (EAE) and Directorate of Energy (ENE). This five-year strategy will enable the EAE/ENE divisions to better integrate CCA into their current operations, particularly within the areas of infrastructure, technology transfer and agriculture. C4 led the development of the four main Annexes, which informed the detailed Adaptation Strategy document. Specifically, this work provided an overview of potential climate change funding sources for the EAE/ENE divisions to partner with for the development of future CCA interventions, including multilateral and bilateral institutions and non-governmental and private sector organisations. Second, a pipeline analysis was conducted of existing climate change projects within four main themes for CCA, namely: i) Adaptation Innovation and Technology Transfer; ii) Climate-proofing Infrastructure; iii) Cross-cutting Projects involving Energy and Adaptation; and iv) Value Chains for Agriculture. Third, these two elements were assessed to identify linkages between the four priority themes and adaptation priorities of proposed target countries— as outlined in national documents such as NDCs, NAPs and Technology Needs Assessments. Countries selected for investigation included Nigeria, Cambodia, Fiji and Tanzania. Finally, the Theory of Change (TOC) for three UNIDO projects (under development) were revised in line with the considerations identified the four main themes for CCA.
Development of the strategy for the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021–2030)GlobalUNEP2019-2020Anthony Mills and C4 led the development of the strategy for the forthcoming UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030), an initiative led by UNEP and FAO to scale up ecosystem restoration globally. C4’s ongoing work included writing the strategy document that was presented at the UN General Assembly and other fora in 2020 and developing the full strategic plan. As part of formulating the strategy, C4 has conducted consultations with a wide range of experts from inter alia UN agencies, academia, NGOs and the private sector, and undertaken extensive literature reviews. The Decade will play an important role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by preventing and reversing the degradation of ecosystems over hundreds of millions of hectares between 2021 and 2030. This will be achieved by: i) encouraging state leaders and corporations to champion restoration; ii) engaging youth organisations globally; iii) providing a digital hub for catalysing a global movement of restoration volunteers; iv) shifting fossil fuel and agriculture subsidies towards restoration investments; v) developing bankable business models for large-scale restoration; and vi) fostering a new global restoration culture.
Economic analysis of the costs and benefits associated with St. John’s Sewerage Infrastructure and Treatment FacilityAntigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda Ministry of Finance2020C4 led an economic appraisal of a project to develop a centralised sewage treatment system for St John’s, Antigua. The study highlighted the predicted impacts of the system resulting from inadequate waste treatment, including discharge into the marine environment, and the recommended interventions to address these impacts. The analysis considered impacts on tourism, public health and fisheries under the ‘with project’ scenario as compared to the ‘without project’ scenario, establishing a strong case for implementing the proposed project.
Drakensberg Sub-Escarpment Grouped Livestock Carbon ProgrammeSouth AfricaPrivate sector — TASC2020-2021C4 undertook a Pre-Feasibility Assessment for this livestock carbon project under the VCS and CCB Standards. The assessment focussed on the mitigation potential in communal rangeland of Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa by adopting improved land and livestock management practices under the Herding for Health model. The sources of emission reductions and removals include: i) avoiding the loss of soil carbon; ii) the increased sequestration of soil carbon; and iii) the reduction of methane production through enteric fermentation. The potential of achieving these mitigation outcomes were modelled based on a combination of remotely sensed data and field observations to construct a biogeochemical model of the equilibrium soil carbon stocks and using IPCC Tier 2 inventories. Additional co-benefits to the project include the increased resilience of vulnerable and rural livelihoods, increased species and structural heterogeneity of the landscape, biodiversity benefits, active clearing of alien invasive plants, active management of bush encroachment and improved catchment management with associated water benefits.
Mount Kenya Landscape Conservation Trust REDD+KenyaPrivate sector — TASC2021C4 undertook a Pre-Feasibility Assessment for this REDD+ project under the VCS and CCB Standards. The project is focussed on reducing the rate of deforestation and forest degradation in and around Mt Kenya National Park, Aberdare National Park, Ngare Ndare Forest Reserve, Timau Forest Reserve and Marmanet Forest Reserve. Activities to achieve these deforestation goals include: i) increasing the number of local residents trained and employed as forest rangers; ii) improvements to the surveillance and communication protocols used by ranger patrols and law enforcement; iii) the development of pre-emptive fire management practices; iv) the provision of agricultural and livestock support services to reduce the pressure on forest resources; v) the re-establishment of habitat connectivity and wildlife corridors to reduce human wildlife conflict; vi) enhancing water management capacity management agreements, monitoring and enforcement to reduce the downstream impacts that result in greater reliance on forest resources and ecosystems; and vii) greater engagement with CFAs, water resource user associations, local government and law enforcement to support awareness, conservation and management of forest resources.
Rift Valley Corporation Scope 1 and 2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions AssessmentZimbabwePrivate sector — Rift Valley Corporation2020-2021C4 undertook a greenhouse gas emissions accounting study for the Rift Valley Corporation to determine their carbon footprint and opportunities for mitigating actions. The assessment was conducted using the GHG Protocol Scope 1 and 2 Standards, Tools and Guidance.
Charara Safari Area REDD+ZimbabwePrivate sector — Rift Valley Corporation and Zambezi Elephant Fund2020C4 undertook a Pre-Feasibility Assessment for this REDD+ project under the VCS and CCB Standards. The project is focussed on reducing the net GHG emission reductions and removals that occur as a result of unplanned, destructive, late-season fires in the Charara Safari Area. The aim of this project is to generate benefits in the areas of climate, community and biodiversity under both the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB) standards.
Determination of the national fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB)Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Nigeria, Madagascar, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland, Namibia, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, Mexico and GuatemalaC-Quest Capital, ICECAP, CO2balance, Korea Carbon Offsets Ltd. and mkaarbon safari GmbH
INTRACO Carbon
TASC
2010-2021C4 developed a series of technical reports that quantify the fraction of non-renewable biomass at a national level. These reports contributed to the development of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) emission reduction projects by incorporating geospatial analyses with the relevant CDM tools and standards. These projects, for example, reduce deforestation and forest degradation, improve health outcomes and support sustainable development by reducing fuelwood consumption. This is achieved by distributing improved cooking stoves to households using fuelwood as a primary energy source.
Environmental health and safety audit of the Al Ain ZooUnited Arab EmiratesMoore Stephens2019C4 assisted with the 2019 environmental health and safety (EHS) audit of the Al Ain Zoo, leading the assessment of all animal husbandry-related operations. The assessment included identifying gaps, challenges and inconsistencies in relevant EHS policies, protocols and standard operating procedures, as well as reviewing recent incidents that occurred on the zoo’s property. Based on the findings of the assessment, C4 provided recommendations to improve EHS practices related to the zoo’s animal husbandry operations.
Developing rules/manual for greenhouse gas emissions and sinks accounting, measurement, reporting and verification procedures for the grassland, reduced/zero till and soil systems in South Africa in preparation for the imminent carbon offsetting regimeSouth AfricaGIZ and the Government of South Africa2017-2018C4, in partnership with the Copperleaf Consortium, developed detailed greenhouse gas emission and sinks accounting guidelines for South Africa. These guidelines were used for carbon offsetting and net emissions reporting in the South African Carbon Tax Regime. Specifically, the project detailed appropriate GHG accounting rules, and developed monitoring, reporting and verification (MPV) guidelines. In doing so, the project assessed whether the management of grasslands and reduced/zero-till agricultural systems reduced carbon emissions.
Towards a policy on indigenous bush encroachment in South AfricaSouth AfricaGIZ2017-2018C4 co-developed a report with Anchor Environmental for South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) on the threat of indigenous bush encroachment in the savannas and grasslands of South Africa. The report comprised: i) a review of the nature, extent and causes of bush encroachment; ii) an assessment of the impacts of bush encroachment on ecosystem services; iii) a review of the potential remedies for the problem; iv) a review of policy and legislation relevant to the management of bush encroachment; and v) an evaluation of different policy scenarios. The findings from the report were subsequently summarised in a policy brief.
FAO Intégrer la résilience climatique à la production agricole et pastorale pour la sécurité alimentaire dans les zones rurales vulnérables à travers l’approche champ ecole des producteursBurkina FasoFAO2017C4 provided technical advisory services for this FAO-funded project. Relevant tasks included: i) reviewing, analysing and identifying best practices for climate-resilient agropastoralism; ii) discussing and validating the identified practices with national and regional stakeholders at regional and national workshops; and iii) facilitating the dissemination of best practices for climate-resilient agropastoralism by publishing reports and radio shows targeting the local communities.
Nsumbu National Park Climate Change StrategyZambiaIUCN2017C4 developed a Climate Change Strategy for Nsumbu National Park in Zambia. The strategy was developed under the IUCN ESARO’s Integrated Planning to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Strategic Plan and Increase Ecosystem Resilience to Climate Change Project. This project, which was implemented in Tanzania, Zambia, Vietnam and Colombia, was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). The Integrated Planning Project will increase capacity to optimise land-use planning which supports biodiversity conservation and climate change adaptation objectives, including the effective engagement of protected area systems.
Adaptation Learning Programme (ALP) climate information systems (CIS) impact assessmentEthiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and NigerCARE2016-2017C4 undertook a continental-scale impact assessment of Climate Information Systems (CIS) and the participatory approaches to their integration into five African countries. The assessment evaluated the impact of CIS on vulnerable communities in adapting their livelihoods to climate change using a community-based adaptation approach. Additionally, the assessment: i) identified potential pathways for upscaling of the participatory approaches; ii) made recommendations for the further upscaling of the approach and iii) put forward questions to advance research in this field.
Solar4Health: using solar energy to improve health services and storage of medicines in ZambiaZambiaUNDP2016C4 developed a Project Document for this UNDP initiative in Zambia. The objective of the Solar4Health project was to provide solar energy to health facilities in Zambia, thereby improving healthcare and the storage of medicines. In addition, the project transferred relevant knowledge and technologies to the GoZ and private sector, contributing towards an enabling environment for further investment in solar technology.
Reliance Composting ProjectSouth AfricaReliance Compost2015-2019C4 developed the Project Description Document which was validated and verified under the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS). This project sought to: i) enable Reliance Composting to generate Verified Carbon Units (VCUs) through the aerobic composting of garden and park waste; ii) reduce methane emissions by preventing the anaerobic decay of garden and park waste (average emissions reductions of ~50,000 tCO2e/yr); and iii) promote the financial sustainability of Reliance Composting by enabling the sale of VCUs on the voluntary carbon market.
Mapping of potential Spekboom restoration areas in the Calitzdorp DomainSouth AfricaCasidra, Gouritz Cluster Biosphere Reserve and LandCare2015-2016C4 undertook a field-mapping exercise to identify potential areas for spekboom (Portulacaria afra) restoration in the Calitzdorp area of the Klein Karoo, South Africa. This assessment: i) determined the historical and current extent of spekboom vegetation types within the area; ii) mapped restoration potential — i.e. currently degraded areas which were historically spekboom-rich vegetation types — at a scale of 1:15,000 within the domain; iii) gauged the willingness of land owners and land users to participate in restoration activities; and iv) developed restoration protocols and standard operating procedures to guide restoration activities within the Calitzdorp planning domain.
Natural Soil Infrastructure and Ecosystem Services AssessmentsSouth AfricaDepartment of Environmental Affairs (DEA) of the Government of South Africa2014-2018C4 undertook primary research, funded by the Government of South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs, investigating the relationship between soil properties and woody plant invasions — i.e. Invasive Alien Plants (IAPs) and bush encroachment — in South Africa’s fynbos, grasslands and savanna biomes. In addition, C4 has continued to be involved in a scientific technical advisory role to the ecological restoration projects within the Natural Resource Management Programme (NRMP) in thicket ecosystems. The objectives of the work are to: i) monitor and evaluate the effect of NRMP interventions on vegetation dynamics, soil erodibility, rates of soil erosion, soil water content and ecosystem carbon stocks; ii) generate an income stream from verified carbon credits in subtropical thicket; and iii) build the capacity of graduate students in the field of natural resource management and restoration ecology.
Niger Delta Climate Resilience InitiativeNigeriaPrivate sector — CarbonPlus Capital2014-2015C4 undertook a Pre-Feasibility Assessment and developed a Project Identification Note for this REDD+ project in Nigeria. The project focussed on directing private sector investment to the restoration and conservation of mangroves and swamp forests in the country to generate carbon credits. Restoration interventions were complemented by alternative livelihood strategies to produce certified commodities which increase household income and/or food security.
Feasibility of sustainable livestock production in the Eastern Cape, South Africa as part of the Sustainable Land and Water ProgrammeSouth AfricaIDH (Instituut voor Duurzame Handel)2014C4 developed a Feasibility Study on the upscaling of two models for sustainable livestock management in two water catchments in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. These models focussed on: i) improved livestock production; ii) improved market access for communal farmers; iii) improved livelihoods for communal farmers; and iv) rehabilitated degraded grasslands.
Addo Elephant National Park, Baviaanskloof Nature Reserve and Great Fish River Nature Reserve Restoration Project (ABFRP)South AfricaGovernment of South Africa2013-2018Anthony Mills was involved in the ABFRP as a scientific advisor from the start of the project in 2003. C4 has contributed to the project by developing the project documentation, restoration protocols and Standard Operating Procedures, and continued to be involved in a technical advisory capacity. This project was the first validated Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) project under the 2007.1 Standard in Africa to restore indigenous forest/thicket in a semi-desert, and only the 19th Agriculture, Forestry and Land-Use project to be validated worldwide. At least 5,300 ha of degraded thicket was expected to be restored by planting cuttings of the indigenous thicket tree Portulacaria afra (spekboom).
Kuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve Thicket Restoration ProjectSouth AfricaKuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve2013-2014C4 developed this project and facilitated its validation under the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA). The project, which received CCBA Gold status, involved undertaking ecosystem restoration in the Kuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Degraded thicket ecosystems were restored by planting cuttings of the indigenous thicket tree Portulacaria afra, commonly known as spekboom. The restoration process sequesters large quantities of atmospheric carbon into soils and plants, and sales from carbon credits will fund the restoration process. The project is currently under implementation.
Western Cape ecosystems goods and services valuation and investment portfolio (WC Eco-Invest Project)South AfricaWestern Cape Government2013-2014C4, in partnership with Anchor Environmental, identified private sector business opportunities in the restoration/conservation of ecosystems in the Western Cape, South Africa. Appropriate financing mechanisms and public sector activities were described for catalysing such investments. The project formed part of the Western Cape Green Economy Strategy Framework, ‘Green is Smart’. This framework included Smart Ecosystems as one of its five focal areas, to facilitate strategic investments in the protection, restoration and management of ecosystems.
Additional financing to community-based agricultural and rural development programmeNigeriaIFAD2013C4 reviewed this project. The review focussed on climate change adaptation and natural resource management interventions under the Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme, for this project funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
Ghana Rural Growth ProgrammeGhanaIFAD2013C4 developed the climate change adaptation interventions, under the Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme, for this project funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The project included designing and costing project interventions to build climate resilience within agriculture in rural areas. Project components included: i) climate change awareness raising; ii) infrastructure investment; iii) agro-ecological adaptation; and iv) policy dialogue and capacity building.
Pre-baseline Feasibility Assessment for a REDD+ project in Sierra LeoneSierre LeoneUK-based private sector client2013C4 undertook a Feasibility Assessment in support of a REDD+ project for a UK-based private sector client. This included extensive literature reviews, remote consultations with local stakeholders and assessments of satellite imagery to determine historical rates of deforestation and degradation.
Spier mob-grazing carbon auditSouth AfricaCredible Carbon2013C4 undertook an audit of greenhouse gas emissions on a privately-owned farm in South Africa practicing improved land management techniques. The audit was conducted in support of the project documentation for an independent carbon credit certification scheme.
Development of integrated MRV systems for REDD+ in the SADC regionSADC countriesGIZ2012-2013C4 undertook a study on current capacity and needs for measurement, reporting and verification of deforestation and forest degradation across the SADC region. Extensive consultations with multiple stakeholders were held, including in-country consultations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.
Climate Change Adaptation in the Quirimbas National Park, MozambiqueMozambiqueFFEM2011-2014C4 EcoSolutions developed a projection appraisal project for the Climate Change Adaptation in the Quirimbas National Park project. The project involved: i) assessing the effect of climate change on the ecosystems of a specific area; ii) designing ecosystem management strategies based on research activities; iii) applying the strategies to a protected area of national and international importance; and iv) implementing a REDD+ approach.
Carbon stocks under different land-uses in renosterveldSouth AfricaTable Mountain Fund2011-2013C4 conducted scientific research to quantify carbon storage in plants and soils in renosterveld vegetation, a highly threatened indigenous vegetation type in the southern Cape, South Africa. The research included assessing the commercial viability of using carbon finance to restore renosterveld in cultivated lands, to create conservation corridors between fragments of intact renosterveld.
Understanding the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the development of a climate proofing strategy in the Limpopo River BasinMozambiqueGovernment of Mozambique2011-2012C4 developed a Project Document for this Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Achievement Fund project in Mozambique. The project aimed to incorporate climate change into the Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA) development plans of local government authorities in the Limpopo River Basin. The project objectives were to build climate resilience and reduce the disaster risk of local communities. Downscaled climate models were used to generate 840 years of daily simulations, which were then run through hydrological and agricultural models. The results were combined with indicators of socioeconomic vulnerability to identify ‘hotspots’ where climate-related hazards were most likely to affect local communities
Arab Climate Resilience InitiativeAlgeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates and YemenUNDP2011C4 developed a Project Document for this project. The project objective was to establish the foundations of a regional platform to provide support for climate resilience in countries of the Arab region. Project activities included: i) enhancing institutional capacity to address the effects of climate change; ii) strengthening resilience to the negative effects of climate change and creating opportunities to enhance the production and use of sustainable energy; and iii) advocating for, and creating public awareness in, countries of the Arab region regarding climate change adaptation and mitigation.
Building Turkey's resilience to climate change through ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)TurkeyUNEP2011C4 developed a Project Document for this project in Turkey. The project objective was to increase the supply of ecosystem goods and services within the Anatolian steppes, Mediterranean forests, Cukurova coastal zone and southeastern GAP region.
Early warning and advisory climate service and product: a diagnostic review and needs assessment for Sub-Saharan Africa — ZambiaZambiaBRLi2011C4 conducted a needs assessment and review of early warning systems (EWS) against climate risks for this African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD)-funded project. The needs for EWS and advisory services were identified within four themes: i) agriculture and food security; ii) water; iii) health; and iv) severe weather events. The findings and recommendations of the study were inputs into the ‘African Early Warning and Advisory Climate Services’ (AEWACS) project.
Early warning and advisory climate services and products: a diagnostic review and needs assessment for Sub-Saharan Africa — South AfricaSouth AfricaBRLi2011C4 conducted a needs assessment and review of early warning systems (EWS) against climate risks for this African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD)-funded project. The needs for EWSs and advisory services were identified within four themes: i) agriculture and food security; ii) water; iii) health; and iv) severe weather events. The findings and recommendations of the study were used to inform the ‘African Early Warning and Advisory Climate Services’ (AEWACS) project.
Technical Feasibility Assessment of the Territorial Approach to Climate Change (TACC) project for the Mbale region of UgandaUgandaUNDP2011C4 undertook a technical assessment prior to implementation of this project. The project focussed on mitigation and adaptation in three districts in eastern Uganda. The technical feasibility of several activities was examined, including: i) support for the Forests Absorbing Carbon Emission (FACE) programme; ii) upland afforestation; iii) coffee agroforestry; iv) improved combustion stove distribution; v) a small grants scheme; and vi) rainwater harvesting.
Tree planting in South African townshipsSouth AfricaFood & Trees for Africa2010-2011C4 developed a Project Documentation for this project in South Africa, which was validated through the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) in 2011. This project, and the “Peri-urban bamboo planting around South African townships” project, were the first urban greening projects in Africa to be validated by the VCS. The project generated carbon credits (Verified Emission Reductions, VERs) by planting trees in townships where communities did not have the financial resources available to do this.
Peri-urban bamboo planting around South African townshipsSouth AfricaFood & Trees for Africa2010-2011C4 developed the Project Documentation for the project in South Africa, which was validated through the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) in 2011. This project, and the ‘Tree Planting in South African Townships’ project, were the first urban greening projects in Africa to be validated by the VCS. The project involved establishing a bamboo plantation on the outskirts of selected townships. A community harvesting programme was designed, whereby mature bamboo culms were harvested annually after the third year.
Long-term planning for low emission, climate-resilient development in the Delta State, NigeriaNigeriaUNDP2010C4 developed a Project Document for this UNDP and Government of Nigeria (GoN) project. The objective of the project was to build technical capacity within the GoN and the private sector to implement appropriate mitigation and adaptation interventions. These interventions included: i) cross-sectoral studies on the nexus between environmental degradation and climate change impacts; ii) identification of communities in Delta State most vulnerable to climate change; and iii) identification of appropriate GHG mitigation and adaptation options.
The Nyatana REDD project: a feasibility assessmentZimbabweICECAP2010C4 EcoSolutions was contracted to assess the feasibility of the Nyatana REDD project. This was a desktop study based on a report by Neutral Futures. The project was said to be entirely viable from the information provided, however, it was suggested that the calculations of potential VER generation be adjusted and recommendations were provided on how to achieve this.
UN collaborative programme on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countriesZambiaUNDP, UNEP and FAO2010C4 developed a Project Document for this UN-REDD project. The project prepared Zambian institutions and stakeholders for nationwide implementation of the REDD+ mechanism. The objectives of the project included: i) building institutional and stakeholder capacity to implement REDD+; ii) developing policies for REDD+; iii) developing REDD+ benefit-sharing models; and iv) developing measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems for REDD+.
Central Asian multi-country programme in climate risk managementKazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and UzbekistanUNDP2009C4 developed a Project Document for this Central Asian adaptation programme for Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The goals of the programme were to: i) promote adaptation to climate change and reduce climate-related disasters in each country; and ii) integrate climate risk management into each country’s main development policies and strategies.
Africa Adaptation ProgrammeCongo Brazzaville, Mauritius, Niger and SenegalUNDP and the Government of Japan2009C4 developed four Project Documents for the African Adaptation Programme (AAP), for Congo Brazzaville, Mauritius, Niger and Senegal. This continent-wide initiative mainstreamed climate change adaptation into national programmes and processes through complementary regional, national, sub-national and local activities.
Carbon stocks under different land-uses in Agulhas Plain Fynbos, Nuwejaars Special Management Area and Flower Valley TrustSouth AfricaFlower Valley Trust2009C4 conducted scientific research to assess the financial viability of using carbon finance to restore eroded peatlands and rehabilitate agricultural fields in South Africa. Options assessed included using wood from alien invasive trees as mulch, compost and biochar. Ecosystem carbon stocks in fynbos, vineyards, pastures and invasive alien tree stands in South Africa’s Agulhas Plain were also quantified. Additionally, carbon sequestration benefits of conserving the indigenous vegetation was compared with other land uses.
Africa Adaptation Programme21 countries across AfricaUNDP and the Government of Japan2008-2012C4 developed an African Adaptation Programme (AAP) Programme Document and provided in-country technical guidance and project management for the launch of the AAP in Ethiopia, Malawi, Kenya and Rwanda. This continent-wide initiative mainstreamed climate change adaptation into national programmes and processes through complementary regional, national, sub-national and local activities.
Carbon credit earning potential for REDD+ activities in NG8 and the NG26 Wildlife Management Area, BotswanaBotswanaAfrican Carbon Exchange2008-2011C4 assessed the financial and ecological viability of a REDD+ project in northern Botswana. The project focussed on the potential of obtaining greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from forest protection in the project areas. This included preparing a detailed Project Idea Note (PIN) and undertaking carbon stock assessments of the project areas.
Carbon credit earning potential for REDD+ activities in the Sichifulo and Lupande Game Management Area, ZambiaZambiaAfrican Carbon Exchange2008-2011C4 assessed the financial and ecological viability of REDD+ activities in Zambia. The project focussed on the potential of obtaining greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from forest protection in the project areas. This included preparing a detailed Project Idea Note (PIN) and undertaking carbon stock assessments of the project areas.
Report on the Namwasa Forestation ProjectUgandaICECAP2008C4 EcoSolutions reviewed the Namwasa Forestation Project with regards to the proposed CDM methodology, the Project Design Document (PDD), the delivery of VERs, inherent risks, ‘best practice’ and regulatory issues specific to the AFOLU market.
Enhancing the capacity of Turkey to adapt to climate changeTurkeyUNDP2007C4 developed a Project Document for this project funded by the MDG Achievement-fund. The project promoted a multi-faceted approach to maintaining agricultural productivity, ecosystem goods and services, and the natural resource base in the context of a warming and drying climate. The objective of the project was to develop capacity to manage climate change risks for rural and coastal development in Turkey. Four outcomes were developed, namely: i) mainstreaming climate change adaptation into the national development framework; ii) building capacity in national and regional institutions; iii) piloting community-based adaptation projects in the Seyhan River Basin; and iv) integrating climate change adaptation into all UN agencies in Turkey.
Adaptation of the water sector to climate change in the SeychellesSeychellesUNDP2006C4 developed a Project Concept for UNDP. This project focussed on building the resilience of the water sector to the projected effects of climate change, proposing interventions pertaining to water supply and management. These interventions included: i) water conservation measures; ii) the introduction of financial incentives or tariffs; iii) rainwater harvesting legislation to improve water catchment functioning; iv) improved water storage capacity; v) water transfer mechanisms; and vi) capacity building in water resource management.