Publications

Collaborators we’ve worked with

Our top 6 journals

Publications over the years

The C4 EcoSolutions’ team publishes extensively in the scientific, peer-reviewed literature across a wide range of disciplines. These include botany, carbon sequestration, climate change adaptation, conservation biology, ecology, restoration ecology, soil science, and zoology. 

Here, the literature generated by C4 EcoSolutions is categorised into the four Cs: Carbon, Conservation, Climate and Community.

YearAuthorTitleCo-AuthorsCategoriesSourceDOI
2020Wilson JRThe role of environmental factors in promoting and limiting biological invasions in South Africa.Foxcroft LC, Geerts S, Hoffman MT, MacFadyen S, Measey J, Mills AJ, Richardson DM, Robertson MP & van Wilgen BW.Conservation PublicationsIn: Biological Invasions in South Africa, pp. 355–385. Invading Nature — Springer Series in Invasion Ecology, vol 14. Springer, Cham.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32394-3_13
2021van der Vyver MLHerbivory and misidentification of target habitat constrain region-wide restoration success of spekboom (Portulacaria afra) in South African subtropical succulent thicket.Mills AJ, Difford M & Cowling RMCarbon Publications, Conservation PublicationsPeerJ 9: p.e11944.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11944
2021van der Vyver MLA biome-wide experiment to assess the effects of propagule size and treatment on the survival of Portulacaria afra (spekboom) truncheons planted to restore degraded subtropical thicket of South AfricaMills AJ & Cowling RMCarbon Publications, Conservation PublicationsPlos one, 16(4), e0250256.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250256
2023Mills AJPotential geochemical constraints on tree seedlings in northern Kruger National Park grasslandsStrydom T, Allen JL & Baum J.Conservation PublicationsKoedoe 65(1), a1773.doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v65i1.1773
2023Mills AJScience is the fuel required for lifting ecosystem restoration into the orbit of hundreds of millions of hectares.Duker, R., Lechmere-Oertel, R. G., van Mazijk, R., & Potts, A. J.Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsFrontiers in Conversation Science, 4, 1283262doi.org/10.3389/fcosc.2023.1283262
2011Mills AJPortulacaria afra is constrained under extreme soil conditions in the Fish River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.Cowling RM, Steyn D, Spekreijse J & Van den Broeck D, Weel S & Boogerd C.Climate PublicationsSouth African Journal of Botanydoi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2010.12.008
2006Mills AJThe role of salinity and sodicity in the dieback of Acacia xanthophloea in Ngorongoro Caldera, Tanzania.Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsAfrican Journal of Ecologydoi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2006.00616.x
2021Mills AJEcological effects of clay mining by Macrotermes termites.Medinski T.Carbon Publications, Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Science, 117(7-8), 1-3.dx.doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2021/11496
2021Mills AJThe chemistry of the pedoderm–part 4: Grasslands and savannas within Mokala National Park, South Africa.Kellner K.Conservation PublicationsAfrican Journal of Range & Forage Science, 1-5.doi.org/10.2989/10220119.2021.1938221
2021Mills AJThe chemistry of the pedoderm–part 3: Colophospermum mopane shrublands and woodlands in the central Kruger National Park, South Africa.Strydom T, Allen JL & Baum J.Conservation PublicationsAfrican Journal of Range & Forage Science, 1-5.doi.org/10.2989/10220119.2021.1938224
2021Mills AJThe chemistry of the pedoderm–part 2: Dichrostachys cinerea patches and adjacent grassland in the southern Kruger National Park, South Africa.Strydom T & Allen JL.Conservation PublicationsAfrican Journal of Range & Forage Science, 1-4.doi.org/10.2989/10220119.2021.1938223
2021Mills AJThe chemistry of the pedoderm–part 1: grasslands and savannas in the central Kruger National Park, South Africa.Strydom T, Allen JL & Baum J.Conservation PublicationsAfrican Journal of Range & Forage Science, 1-6.doi.org/10.2989/10220119.2021.1938222
2021Mills AJPedoderm chemistry in sodic patches on savannah hillslopes in the southern Kruger National Park, South Africa.Strydom T, Allen JL & Baum J.Conservation PublicationsAfrican Journal of Ecology, 59(4), 1070-1074.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12898
2020Mills AJThe United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration: catalysing a global movement.Christophersen T, Wilkie ML & Mansur E.Climate Publications, Community PublicationsUnasylva, 252, 119-126.doi.org/10.4060/cb1600en
2020Mills AJQuantifying a sponge: The additional water in restored thicket.De Wet RClimate Publications, Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Sciencedx.doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2019/a0309
2020Mills AJSmall ratios of anabolic to catabolic soil nutrients constrain non-indigenous trees in the Western Cape, South Africa.Allen JA & Le Roux ZM.Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Botanydoi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2020.03.035
2020Mills AJBasal stem area is a better measure of woodiness than canopy cover in the savannas of the Kruger National Park.Strydom TConservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Sciencedx.doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2020/7409
2020Mills AJEcosystem-based adaptation to climate change: Lessons learned from a pioneering project spanning Mauritania, Nepal, the Seychelles, and China.Tan D, Manji AK, Vijitpan T, Henriette E, Murugaiyan P, Pantha RH, Lafdal MY, Soule A, Cazzetta S, Begat P, Vlieghe KEP, Lavirotte L, Kok, JT & Lister J.Climate Publications, Community PublicationsPlants, People, Planetdoi.org/10.1002/ppp3.10126
2018Mills AJNutrient enrichment of ecosystems by fungus-growing versus non-fungus-growing termites.Sirami CCarbon Publications, Conservation PublicationsJournal of Tropical Ecologydx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467418000330
2018Thomas RJA framework for scaling sustainable land management options.Reed M, Clifton K, Appadurai AN, Mills AJ. et al.Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsLand Degradation and Developmentdoi.org/10.1002/ldr.3080
2018Mills AJSearching for David within the Goliath of alien woody plant invasions in the Western Cape Province.Allen, JLConservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Sciencedoi.org/10.17159/sajs.2018/a0285
2002Fey MVRehabilitation of waste rock and overburden dumps.O’Brien RD & Mills AJ.Climate Publications, PublicationsEncyclopedia of Soil ScienceISBN9780429110757
2005Mills AJEcosystem carbon storage under different land uses in three semi-arid shrublands and a mesic grassland in South Africa.O?Connor TG, Donaldson JS, Fey MV, Skowno AL, Sigwela AM, Lechmere-Oertel RG & Bosenberg JD. Carbon Publications, Community PublicationsSouth African Journal of Plant and Soildoi.org/10.1080/02571862.2005.10634705
2004Mills AJSoil carbon and nitrogen in five contrasting biomes of South Africa.Fey MV.Carbon PublicationsSouth African Journal of Plant and Soildoi.org/10.1080/02571862.2004.10635030
2005Mills AJInteractive response of herbivores, soils and vegetation to annual burning in a South African savanna.Fey MV.Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsAustral Ecologydoi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2005.01487.x
2005Mills AJEffects of goat pastoralism on ecosystem carbon storage in semiarid thicket, Eastern Cape, South Africa.Cowling RM, Fey MV, Kerley, GIH Donaldson JS, Lechmere-Oertal RG, Sigwale AM, Skowno AL & Rundel P.Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsAustral Ecologydoi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2005.01523.x
2004Mills AJTransformation of thicket to savanna reduces soil quality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.Fey MV.Conservation PublicationsPlant and Soildoi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-0534-2
2004Mills AJA simple laboratory infiltration method for measuring the tendency of soils to crust.Fey MV.Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsSoil Use and Managementdoi.org/10.1079/SUM2003213
2004Mills AJEffects of vegetation cover on the tendency of soil to crust in South Africa.Fey MV.Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsSoil Use and Managementdoi.org/10.1079/SUM2004262
2004O?Connor TGEcological effects of firebreaks in the montane grasslands of the southern Drakensberg, South Africa.Uys RG & Mills AJ.Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsAfrican Journal of Range and Forage Sciencedoi.org/10.2989/10220110409485828
2003Mills AJDeclining soil quality in South Africa: effects of land use on soil organic matter and surface crusting.Fey MV.Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Sciencehdl.handle.net/10520/EJC97694
2004Mills AJFrequent fires intensify soil crusting: physicochemical feedback in the pedoderm of long-term burn experiments in South Africa.Fey MV.Climate PublicationsGeodermadoi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2003.10.004
2006Mills AJRate of carbon sequestration at two thicket restoration sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.Cowling RM.Carbon Publications, Conservation PublicationsRestoration Ecologydoi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2006.00103.x
2007Mills AJAssessing costs, benefits and feasibility of subtropical thicket restoration in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.Turpie J, Cowling RM, Marais C, Kerley GIH, Lechmere-Oertel RG, Sigwela AM & Powell M. Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsRestoring Natural Capital
2006Fey MVThe alternative meaning of pedoderm and its use for soil surface characterisation.Mills AJ & Yaalon DH.Conservation PublicationsGeodermadoi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.07.018
2006Mills AJManaging small populations in practice: black rhino in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.Morkel P, Amiyo A, Runyoro V, Borner M & Thirgood S. Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsOryxdoi.org/10.1017/S0030605306000901
2006Mills AJUnravelling the effects of soil properties on water infiltration: segmented quantile regression on a large data set from arid southwest Africa.Fey MV, Grongroft A, Petersen A & Medinski TV.Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsAustralian Journal of Soil Researchdoi.org/10.1071/SR05180
2006Mills AJA framework for the scaled exploration of the determinants of savanna and grassland distribution: a challenge for the new generation of ecologists.Rogers KH, Stalmans M & Witkowski ETF.Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsBiosciencedoi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[579:AFFETD]2.0.CO;2
2005Mills AJIonic strength as a measure of sulphate salinity stress: effects of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and manganese sulphate on kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) growth and ion uptake.Fey MV & Johnson CE.Climate PublicationsSouth African Journal of Plant and Soildoi.org/10.1080/02571862.2004.10635051
2007Milton SJScaling up from site-based research to a national research and monitoring network: lessons from Tierberg Karoo Research Centre and other design considerations.Dean WRJ, O'Connor TG & Mills AJ.Community PublicationsSouth African Journal of Sciencehdl.handle.net/10520/EJC96697
2007Fey MVSoils of Namaqualand: compensations for aridity.Francis ML, Prinsloo HP, Ellis F, Mills AJ, de Clercq WP, Sinjan E & Medinski TV. Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsJournal of Arid Environmentsdoi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.12.028
2007Mills AJGeophagy and micronutrient supplementation in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania, with particular reference to selenium, cobalt, and molybdenum.Milewski AV.Conservation PublicationsJournal of Zoologydoi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00241.x
2007Turpie JKThe ecological and economic consequences of changing land use in the southern Drakensberg grasslands.O'Connor TG, Mills AJ & Robertson H.Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Economic and Management Sciencesdoi.org/10.4102/sajems.v10i4.1057
2008Brown RNon-rainfall moisture inputs in the Knersvlakte: methodology and preliminary findings.Mills AJ & Jack C.Climate PublicationsWater SAISSN 1816-7950
2009Sako ARare earth and trace element geochemistry of termite mounds in central and northeastern Namibia: Mechanisms for micro-nutrient accumulation.Mills AJ & Roychoudhury AN.Conservation PublicationsGeodermadoi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.08.011
2009Sigwela AThe impact of browsing-induced degradation on the reproduction of subtropical thicket canopy shrubs and trees.Cowling R, Kerley G & Mills AJ.Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Botanydoi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2008.12.001
2009Medinksi TVRelationships between soil particle size fractions and infiltrability.Mills AJ & Fey MV.Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Plant and Soildoi.org/10.1080/02571862.2009.10639948
2009Medinksi TVInfiltrability in soils from south-western Africa: effects of texture, electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium percentage.Mills AJ & Fey MV.Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Plant and Soildoi.org/10.1080/02571862.2009.10639949
2009Mills AJFungus culturing, nutrient mining and geophagy: a geochemical investigation of Macrotermes and Trinervitermes mounds in southern Africa.Milewski A, Fey MV, Groengroeft A & Peterson A. Conservation PublicationsJournal of Zoologydoi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00544.x
2008Lechmere-Oertel RGLitter dynamics across browsing-induced fenceline contrasts in succulent thicket, South Africa.Kerley GIH, Mills AJ & Cowling RM.Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Botanydoi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2008.04.002
2009Mills AJSoil infiltrability as a driver of plant cover and species richness in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa.Fey MV, Donaldson J, Todd S & Theron L. Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsPlant and Soildoi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-9904-5
2009Fox SCMicromorphology of surface crusts in the Knersvlakte, South Africa.Mills AJ & Poch RM.Climate PublicationsJournal of Mountain Sciencedoi.org/10.1007/s11629-009-1036-0
2010Pröpper MCauses and perspectives of land-cover change through expanding cultivation in Kavango.Gröngröft A, Falk T, Eschenbach A, Fox T, Gessner U, Hecht J, Hinz MO, Huettich C, Hurek T, Kangombe FN, Keil M, Kirk M, Mapaure C, Mills A, Mukuya R, Namwoonde NE, Overmann J, Petersen A, Reinhold-Hurek B, Schneiderat U, Strohbach BJ, Lück-Vogel M & Wisch U.Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsBiodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 3: Implications for landuse and managementhdl.handle.net/10204/4831
2010Petersen ASoils along the BIOTA transects.Gr”ngr”ft A, Mills AJ & Miehlich G.Conservation PublicationsBiodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 2: Patterns and processes at regional scale
2010Zedda LPatterns of soil lichen diversity along the BIOTA transects in relation to climate and soil features.Gr”ngr”ft A, Schultz M, Petersen A, Mills AJ & Rambold G. Conservation PublicationsBiodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 2: Patterns and processes at regional scaleISBN 9783933117465
2010Jeltsch FImpacts of landuse and climate change on the dynamics and biodiversity in the Thornbush Savanna Biome.Blaum N, Classen N, Eschenbach A, Grohmann C, Gröngröft A, Joubert DF, Horn A, Lohmann D, Linsenmair KE, Lück-Vogel M, Medinski TV, Meyfarth S, Mills A, Petersen A, Popp A, Poschlod P, Reisch C, Rossmanith E, Rubilar H, Schütze S, Seymour C, Simmons R, Smit GN, Strohbach M, Tews J, Tietjen B, Wesuls D, Wichmann M, Wieczorek M & Zimmermann I.Climate Publications, Community PublicationsBiodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 3: Implications for landuse and managementhdl.handle.net/10204/4828
2010Mills AJBelow-ground carbon stocks in intact and transformed subtropical thicket landscapes in semi-arid South Africa.Cowling RM.Carbon Publications, Conservation PublicationsJournal of Arid Environmentsdoi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.07.002
2010Fey MVAnimals in soil environments.Milewski AV & Mills AJ.Conservation PublicationsSoils of South Africadoi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511782183.004
2010Milewski AVDoes life consistently maximise energy intensity?Mills AJ.Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsBiological Reviewsdoi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00131.x
2011Cowling RMA preliminary assessment of rain throughfall beneath Portulacaria afra canopy in subtropical thicket and its implications for soil carbon stocks.Mills AJ.Climate PublicationsSouth African Journal of Botanydoi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2010.06.004
2011Mills AJDetecting the onset of rangeland degradation using soil respiration and boundary lines: preliminary findings from the Nama Karoo.Fey MV, Kgope B, Donaldson J & Bosenberg JD.Climate PublicationsAfrica Journal of Range and Forage Sciencedoi.org/10.2989/10220119.2011.608903
2010Stephenson JGeochemistry of mineral licks at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa.Mills, AJ, Eksteen J, Milewski AV & Myburgh J.Climate PublicationsEnvironmental Geochemistry and Healthdoi.org/10.1007/s10653-010-9313-y
2012Mills AJCarbon stocks in fynbos, pastures and vineyards on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: a preliminary assessment.Birch SC, Stephenson JD & Bailey RV. Carbon Publications, Community PublicationsSouth African Journal of Plant and Soildoi.org/10.1080/02571862.2012.730636
2012Van der Vyfer MLSpontaneous return of biodiversity in restored subtropical thicket: Portulacaria afra as an ecosystem engineer.Cowling RM, Mills AJ & Difford M. Conservation PublicationsRestoration Ecologydoi.org/10.1111/rec.12000
2011Zedda LDistribution patterns of soil lichens across the principal biomes of southern Africa.Gr”ngr”ft A, Schultz M, Petersen A, Mills AJ & Rambold G.Conservation PublicationsJournal of Arid Environmentsdoi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2010.10.007
2012Kaseke KFThe effects of desert pavements (gravel mulch) on soil micro-hydrology.Mills AJ, Henschel J, Seely MK, Esler K & Brown R. Climate PublicationsPure and Applied Geophysics.doi.org/10.1007/s00024-011-0367-2
2012Kaseke KFSpatial variation of non-rainfall water input and the effect of mechanical soil crusts on input and evaporation.Mills AJ, Esler K, Henschel J, Seely MK & Brown R.Climate PublicationsPure and Applied Geophysicsdoi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0469-5
2012Mills AJAerosol capture by small trees in savannas marginal to treeless grassland in South Africa.Milewski AV, Sirami C, Rogers KH, Witkowski ETF, Stalmans M & Fey MV. Climate PublicationsGeodermadoi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.05.006
2012Kumamoto MWhat African countries perceive to be adaptation priorities: results from 20 countries in the Africa Adaptation Programme.Mills AJ.Climate Publications, Community PublicationsClimate and Developmentdoi.org/10.1080/17565529.2012.733676
2014Mills AJHow fast can carbon credits be generated through restoration of degraded subtropical thicket?Cowling RM.Carbon Publications, Community PublicationsRestoration Ecologydoi.org/10.1111/rec.12117
2013Mills AJSequestering carbon and restoring renosterveld though fallowing: a practical conservation approach for the Overberg, Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.Birch SC, Stanway R, Huyser O, Chisholm RA, Sirami C & Spear D.Carbon PublicationsConservation Lettersdoi.org/10.1111/conl.12003
2013Mills AJBoundary of treeless grassland in relation to nutrient content of soils on the Highveld of South Africa.Milewski AV, Rogers KH, Witkowski ETF & Stalmans M. Conservation PublicationsGeodermadoi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.02.007
2013Seymour CLDo the large termite mounds of Macrotermes concentrate micronutrients in addition to macronutrients in nutrient-poor African savannas?Mills AJ, Milewski AV, Joseph GS, Cumming DHM, Mahlangu Z. Conservation PublicationsSoil Biology and Biochemistrydoi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.09.022
2013Mills AJConstraint on woody cover in relation to nutrient content of soils in western southern Africa.Milewski AV, Fey MV, Gr”ngr”ft A, Petersen M & Sirami C. Conservation PublicationsOikosdoi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20417.x
2012Kaseke KFA method for direct assessment of the “non rainfall” atmospheric water cycle: input and evaporation from the soil.Mills AJ, Brown R, Esler K, Henschel J & Seely MK. Climate PublicationsPure and Applied Geophysicsdoi.org/10.1007/s00024-011-0328-9
2015Milewski AVWhy was the Highveld treeless? Looking laterally to the Pampas for global edaphic principles beyond biogeographical incidents.Mills AJ.Climate Publications, Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Botanydoi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2015.05.019
2015Mills AJPrescribing innovation within a large-scale restoration programme in degraded subtropical thicket in South Africa.Vyver M, Gordon I, Patwardhan A, Marais C, Blignaut J, Sigwela A & Kgope B.Community Publications, Conservation PublicationsForestsdoi.org/10.3390/f6114328
2014Mills AJBiomass of large herbivores in South African subtropical thicket.Spear D, Ndhlovu T, Knight MH, Pienke DM, Hofmeyr S & Cowling RM. Conservation PublicationsAfrican Journal of Ecologydoi.org/10.1111/aje.12162
2017Mills AJSurvivorship of spekboom (Portulacaria afra) planted within the Subtropical Thicket Restoration Programme.Robson, A.Carbon PublicationsSouth African Journal of Sciencedoi.org/10.17159/sajs.2017/a0196
2018Mills AJRestoration of wetlands on the Agulhas Plain is unlikely to generate peat.Hunter R.Conservation PublicationsSouth African Journal of Sciencedoi.org/10.17159/sajs.2018/a0252
2017Mills AJEffects of anabolic and catabolic nutrients on woody plant encroachment after long-term experimental fertilization in a South African savanna.Milewski AV, Snyman D & Jordaan JJ.Conservation PublicationsPLoS ONEdoi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179848
2016Mills AJA preliminary test of catabolic nutrients in explanation of the puzzling treelessness of grassland in mesic Australia.Milewski AV, & Sirami C. Conservation PublicationsAustral Ecologydoi.org/10.1111/aec.12385
2017Mander MModelling potential hydrological returns from investing in ecological infrastructure: case studies from the Baviaanskloof-Tsitsikamma and uMngeni catchments, South Africa.Jewitt G, Dini J, Glenday J, Blignaut J, Hughes C, Marais C, Maze K, van der Waal B & Mills AJ.Climate Publications, Community PublicationsEcosystem Servicesdoi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.003
2018Mills AJViability of watering Portulacaria afra truncheons to facilitate restoration of subtropical thicket: Results from a nursery experiment and cost model.Milton SJ, Taplin BD & Allen JL.Climate PublicationsSouth African Journal of Botanydoi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2017.10.017